The main purpose of advertising is to sell a product. This general goal, advertising is also used by the modern companies for certain specific objectives.
Sponsorships attract the attention of audience to a company or product, build loyalty with a specific audience, help distinguish a product from its imitations.
Like advertising, sponsorships are initiated to build long-term unions. The value of sponsorships is perceptible. Sports sponsorships make up about two-thirds of all sponsorships.
Football is one of the world’s most brand-saturated markets. In addition to the main shirt sponsors, there are often secondary sponsors on the backs of the shirts. Then there’s the clubs’ other commercial partners, who appear on the TV interview backdrops alongside the competition’s commerc
Показать всеial partners.
Brands want more than awareness. They want loyalty and advocacy from their existing customers, and they want to open up channels to new customers for their products and services. To do both, they need to communicate their brand values and personality. But it’s the same for the fans. They want the brands sponsoring their clubs – or football in general – to share their passion, to give something back, and to build a relationship with the fans. They need to understand, and have an affinity with, the brand’s values.
In football, as with any sport, for the sponsorship to work effectively consumers need to know more than the brand’s name. They need to understand how and why the brand fits into their lives. That applies whether it’s a local, national or global brand. That’s why, relying on advertising to leverage the sponsorship, is both passive and unproductive.
Football sponsorship is of vital importance both for clubs and companies. Football shirts advertise logos and emblems attracting audience’s attention to the product and increasing the sails of sport kits while the company sponsors the club.
According to the poll about 68% of fans like Manchester United's new home kit. But Twitter pall showed the opposite results. More fans said that they disliked the shirt, because of the massive sponsor. The comments are mixed and contradictory. But the vast majority emphasis that the huge Chevrolet emblem didn’t manage to spoil the whole design. An overwhelming bulk of fans expressed their wish to buy a shirt.
Student football team survey showed similar results. Respondents featured a huge Chevrolet logo, ManUtd shirt design and expressed their opinion about sport sponsorship.
Thus we can conclude that Adidas ManUtd shirt design has received positive response from football fans except for the Chevrolet logo as a company wanted to attract fans’ attention and to gain profit. Скрыть
Most companies will to promote their business. Thus they try to allocate big amount of money to advertise their business using various billboards, TV commercials and print ads. Companies also use T-shirts to print their labels on them. Today a large amount of companies turn T-shirts into marketing tools.
To make labels visible one should put them right. The stuff used to be simple, short and a company logo – noticeable. The main goal of labels is to attract the attention of customers and consequently to expose their business by expanding the number of clients.
There is a large amount of promotional items today and T-shirts are popular with customers. They are used widely and help to promote company’s name, logo and message.
Further we’ll address the issue of football T-shirt
Показать всеs as marketing tools: look at the examples of using T-shirts by other companies, history of sport sponsorship, highlight benefits of using football T-shirts to exposure business, set examples of football kits and T-shirts in particular.
To study the topic we’ve carried out the analysis of existing data, collected evidence.
Object of work: marketing tools, football shirts as a marketing tool, sport sponsorship, football kits as an advertising space, the Chevrolet Company and its partnership with Manchester United.
Tasks of work: to describe the essence and mechanisms of sponsorship, to set examples of beneficial use of shirts as a marketing tool, to compare the results of partnership between sponsors and football clubs, to highlight the most profitable deal between the Chevrolet Company and Manchester United, the origin of the Chevrolet emblem and rules of placing logos on football shirts.
Structure of research: the work contains the following parts: content, introduction, body, conclusion, bibliography and appendices.
1. Football shirts as a marketing tool 4
1.1. Benefits of shirt advertising 4
1.2. Playing kit. Sponsor designation 5
1.3. Sport sponsorship 5
2. Analysis of sponsor labels on football shirts 7
2.1. Methodology and methods 7
2.2. The current situation and role of sponsorship logos on football shirts 8
2.3. The origin of the Chevrolet emblem 10
2.4. Chevrolet and Manchester United partnership 10
Appendices 1 15
1. Andrews, D. L. (2004), Manchester united: a thematic study, London; New York: Routledge, 291 p.
2. BBC, Social and cultural factors affecting participation [Online], Retrieved from:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/participation/1_participation_socialcultural_rev1.shtml (Accessed 3 Aug 2016).
3. Bradley, N. (2013), Marketing Research: Tools and Techniques, UK: OUP Oxford, 552 p.
4. Brierley, S. (1995), The advertising handbook, New York: Routledge, 304 p.
5. Car-Brand-Names, Chevrolet Logo [Online], Retrieved from: http://www.car-brand-names.com/chevrolet-logo (Accessed 28 July 2016).
6. Chisnall, P.M. (2004), Marketing Research, London: McGraw-Hill, 496 p.
7. Corke, A. (1985), Effective advertising and PR, Sydney: Pan books, 122 p.
8. Cornwell, B. T., Amis, J
Показать все. M., (2005), Global Sport Sponsorship (Sport Commerce and Culture), UK: Berg Publishers, 336 p.
9. Cornwell, B. T. (2014), Sponsorship in Marketing: Effective Communication through Sports, Arts and Events, New York: Routledge, 180 p.
10. Cotler, P., Fernando, T. B. (2010), Lateral marketing: new techniques for finding breakthrough ideas, M.: Alpina Publishers, 206 p.
11. Douglas, S. (2011), The essential handbook to getting a logo designed for your company, product or service, The Logo Factory Inc, 221 p.
12. FIFA (2010) Equipment Regulations [Online], Retrieved from: http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/tournament/competition/51/54/30/equipment_reg_26032010_en.pdf (Accessed 28 July 2016).
13. Forrester, M. (1988), Everything you always suspected was true about advertising, but were too legal, decent and honest to ask, S. l.: Fontana/Collins, 96 p.
14. Henry, H. (1963), Motivation research: its practice and uses for advertising, marketing and other business purposes, London: Crosby Lockwood & Son, 240 p.
15. Holbert, N. B. (1981), Marketing research for the marketing and advertising executive, New York: Amer, 315 p.
16. Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy L.M. (2002), Sport promotion and sales management, Lodon: Human Kinetics Europe Ltd, 364 p.
17. Bich, J. Cedwick, S. (2010), Marketing in sport, M.: Alpina Publishers, 706 p.
18. McDonnell, I. Moir, M. (2013), Event Sponsorship, New York: Routledge, 160 p.
19. Meyer-Delius, H. (2016) The Use of T-shirt as Marketing Weapons: What do top companies do? [Online], available at: https://www.printsome.com/blog/2016/t-shirts-marketing-weapon (Accessed 3 Aug 2016).
20. Miller, A. (2014) Man Utd’s Chevrolet deal pushes premier league shirt values to £191m [Online], available at: http://www.sportingintelligence.com/2014/07/28/man-utds-chevrolet-deal-pushes-premier-league-shirt-values-to-191m-280701 (Accessed 3 Aug 2016).
21. Niven, C. Youngson, C. (1990), Advertising in action, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 48 p.
22. Shrimp, T.A. (2002), Advertising, promotion and supplemental aspects of integrated marketing communications, US: South-Western, 704 p.
23. Chevrolet (2012), The Chevrolet emblem may have been inspired by a piece of wallpaper. Or maybe not. [Online], available at: http://www.chevrolet.com/culture/article/bowtie-history.html (Accessed 3 Aug 2016).
24. Villegas, R. (2015), The sport sponsor handbook: how to increase profits through sport and entertainment sponsorship, UK: The Sport Sponsor Handbook: How to Increase Profits Through Sport and Entertainment Sponsorship, 80 p.
That shoes determination.And what happens if they sponsor a team or player who gets into trouble? Deutsche Telekom were major sponsors of cycling but found themselves in an awkward situation when a number of their former riders failed drugs tests. As a result of this scandal, many companies have moved away from sponsoring cycling, including top team sponsors Discovery Channel, who were Lance Armstrong’s sponsors during his glory years on the Tour se France.Many now sponsor events rather than the people. Dutch beer giant Heineken sponsors the UFFA Champions League. Around four billion people will have watched a Champions League game by the time the referee’s whistle blows to end the tournament. And all of those spectators will have seen lots of Heineken ads and the beer’s name and logo ev
Показать всеerywhere. Of course it doesn’t matter to Heineken which team wins because they know that they will.But the really important question is, does sponsorship work? Will you be buying a Heineken after the game just because you’ve seen the logo? And what if Manchester United are playing? Will you be re-insuring your life with Aon as a result? There’s clearly more research to be done.4 Brierley, S. (1995), The advertising handbook, Routledge, New York, p.41ANALYSIS OF SPONSOR LABELS ON FOOTBALL SHIRTS2.1 Methodology and methods To analyses the essence and aims of sponsorship we’ve carried out a market research taking as an example Manchester United and the Chevrolet Company partnership. The following research methods were used:analysis of existing data, collection of evidence:throughout the analysis the main aim was to look at the most beneficial sport sponsorship deals, to highlight Manchester United and the Chevrolet Company partnership, reflect significant deals, income, new shirt design, fans reaction to new Manchester United kit, estimate their comments and wishes, wills to buy the product, approval of new design;comparative methods (case study):to understand the influence of sponsors’ label on the company’s prosperity and sensible and effective union of sponsors’ logos and club’s emblems we’ve undertook this method; the process of partner relationship between Manchester United and the Chevrolet Company was taken into account;method of agreement: comparisonof similar cases of partnership between sponsors and teams, analysis of the results of their cooperation, public opinion;method of difference: analysis of opposite cases of partnership not only between different football clubs but throughout the history of partnership of Manchester United and other companies.To carry out the research the large amount of articles and current information was used. The Chevrolet emblem (pic. 4 Appendices 1) is a part of football kit design. There are several versions of how this emblem came into existence. It was introduced in 1913 by company cofounder William C. Durant (Car-Brand-Names, Chevrolet Logo [Online], Retrieved from: http://www.car-brand-names.com/chevrolet-logo (Accessed 28 July 2016).Sponsor's logo has become an integral part of a professional club. In other words, the logo on the shirts is just a part of the package.Chest player has become an excellent advertising space. This idea is emphasized by S. Brierley in ‘The advertising handbook’. He sets various examples of sponsorship deals, their purposes, failures or successes (Brierley, S. (1995), The advertising handbook, Routledge, New York, 304 p.).. To reveal media and public opinion various articles concerning Manchester United and the Chevrolet Company was considered. To estimate the success of this deal different tables were analyzed and Twitter palls examined (Flanagan, A. (2015) Manchester United new kit: Fans react to first Adidas shirt in world record £750m deal[Online], available at: http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/manchester-united-new-kit-fans-6175017(Accessed 3 Aug 2016).The annual reports of the company SPORT + MARKT were also analyzed, they showed who collects the highest yield «from the chest».2.2 The current situation and role of sponsorship logos on football shirtsFor the first time in many years total revenue from six European leagues (Germany, England, Italy, Spain, France, the Netherlands) advertising the kit was almost 400 million euros in 2008.An estimated 200 million pounds a year is currently being paid by various brands to sponsor the shirts of the 20 Premier League clubs for a single season. That’s roughly 10 times what the 24 Championship clubs receive from their shirt sponsors in a year. It’s good business for the clubs – particularly those in the top flight – but is it good business for the companies putting their brands on the shirts? For many of those sponsors – such as Emirates, Etihad Airways, American Express, Air Asia and King Power – the shirt sponsorship is part of a much wider sponsorship deal with the club or is directly linked to the club’s ownership.5From a marketing perspective, the ‘brand awareness’ benefits are obvious. The Premier League says its matches reach more than 200 territories around the world and are watched in around 650 million homes. Then there’s the Champions League, Europa League, FA Cup and League Cup viewing figures to add into that. And we haven’t even counted the 360,000 who actually go to Premier League games every week. The figures for the Football League Championship are rather more modest. The average live game attracts around 400,000 Sky Sports viewers, with around 1 million tuning into the BBC’s weekly highlights show (Channel 5 recently won the rights for those). More than 20 countries around the world show either live Championship games or highlights.Football clubs from Europe's leading leagues earn income of more than 470 million euros by advertising the sponsors logos and emblems on their T-shirts.Gunter Mast was the first one to advertise their goods on the players' shirts in 1973. He offered the deal to the local team Eintracht (from Braunschweig). The deal was favorable to both parties: the entrepreneur has received a greater flow of customers, the team - an additional income.5 5Aberfield (2015) The Shirt Sponsorship League 2015 [Online], Retrieved from: http://www.aberfield.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Shirt-Sponsorship-League.pdf (Accessed 28 July 2016)Other firms and clubs noticed this beneficial cooperation. The logos on T-shirts began to grow like mushrooms after rain. Not all managers and fans want to see the sponsor's logo next to the logo of the club, but sooner or later the clubs «gave up» and entered into sponsorship contracts. Now, many are willing to pay tens of millions for that chest of Ronaldo, Messi and Falcao for a company's name to be.On the chest of a football player can not only be the name of his team, or the emblem of the native land. According to UEFA, it is the same countries which have the best achievements on the football field, the so-called Big Five - England, Spain, Italy, Germany and France - plus Dutch.English Premier League Clubs will earn on the general sponsors logos 128 million euros for the current season. That, among other things, to 44.5 million euros more than a year ago.Here is another possible answer to the question of the global crisis completion. It is interesting that among themselves Premier League clubs shared leadership teams with a different fate. And the richest club in the world, Manchester United (from AON), and barely escaped bankruptcy Liverpool (from the bank Standard Chartered) obtained in the year to 22.3 million euros. Barcelona had been refusing to have logos on their T-shirts, but still gave up under the temptation. Nevertheless, the Barcelona decided to solve this problem step by step. For the first time the Catalans advertised Unicef as a charitable gesture. In cooperation with the Qatar Foundation they began to receive profit from the «writing on the chest».As for the manufacturers - Nike, Adidas, Umbro and others - they believe that their design looks best without a corporate logo, which not only can ruin the appearance of the forms, but also to overshadow the kit designer.However, the logo on the chest can either spoil the form or embellish it. There are many examples of well-chosen color and style of sponsorship logo can perfect the style without any flaws. The Milan Inter that has been working with Pirelli can serve as a good example. Sponsor’s logo has assimilated with the club colors long time ago and looks great on T-shirts, complementing them. If you remove the logo it would appear that something is missing.Now there is practically no difference between the club and Pirelli, it is almost a single entity, Pirelli - is Inter and Inter - Pirelli. At the time, it was impossible to imagine London Arsenal without JVC. The club and the company have been collaborating since 1981 until 2000! The other example is Carlsberg and Liverpool that cooperated for a long time and produced an inseparable union. We may recall funny moments of rivalry for sponsors between the clubs. Thus in Scotland the Celtic and Rangers has one and the same sponsor - Carling. Fans have already resigned to the fact that they have to share and wear the same T-shirt logo. 2.3The origin of the Chevrolet emblemThe main and most popular version is that the emblem was inspired by wallpaper in a French hotel. While traveling in 1908, Duran caught a glimpse of this design on wallpaper, kept a piece of the wallpaper and represented it to his friends as a future emblem for a car.Other version is that the sketch of the emblem appeared during Durant’s dinner. Probably, it was borrowed from a newspaper ad. According to Duran’s wife the company cofounder spotted an interesting design reading a newspaper and exclaimed that it would be a perfect emblem for the Chevrolet. There is a view that the Chevrolet emblem was inspired by the the Coalettes logo (the Southern Compressed Coal Company). The ad of the Coalettes was published in the newspaper and Durant could have seen it. Another version is that the emblem reminds of the Swiss flag as Louis Chevrolet was born in Switzerland. So the emblem is a stylized variant of the cross. Anyway the Chevrolet bowtie has become a gold standard. The bowtie’s design has been changing through decades but the essence hasn’t changed.62.4Chevrolet and Manchester United partnershipManchester United is one of the best football team in the world and it is one of the richest. This is because its international is very strong. The team is recognized by billions of people and has over 300 million fans around the world, representing 5% of the global population. This is an excellent opportunity for sponsors to market their own products. Nike, for example, sells over 3 million Manchester United products each year, and they cost supporters 80 dollars each. The most important factors for an international club like Manchester United are: It must continue to have a team. This means winning games, winning trophies and the world’s best. This attracts more fans.The club needs to turn its fans into customers, by offering them a lot of products from credit cards to mobile phones. 95% of United’s fans never visit its stadium at Old Trafford, so the club needs to go to them. 6Chevrolet (2012), The Chevrolet emblem may have been inspired by a piece of wallpaper. Or maybe not. [Online], available at:http://www.chevrolet.com/culture/article/bowtie-history.html(Accessed 3 Aug 2016). Скрыть
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