Российские Коммерческие Банки как субьекты кредитного рынка:их функции и операции.
1. Principles of the commercial bank organizing
1.1 Maintenance and role of commercial banks
1.2 Credit system’s organization in Russia
1.3 Commercial banks in credit system and their function
1.4 Credit process and its stages.
1.5 Principles of crediting.
2. The characteristic of the basic operations of commercial banks
2.1 Definition of credit operations
2.2 Definition of the loan
2.3 Types of loan operations
2.4 Classification of the commercial banks credits
3. Assessment of a current state and prospects for the development of Banking in Russia
3.1 Analysis of a condition of the credit market of the Russian Federation
3.2 Estimation of a credit policy of commercial bank
3.3 Prospects for development of commercial bank credit operations
Показать всеure list
Appendix 1 Credit process
Appendix 2 Mechanism of crediting
Appendix 3 Structure of banc active operations
Appendix 4 Bank credit
Appendix 5 Reserve Bank credit
Appendix 6 Bank credit of all commercial banks
1.The civil code of Russian Federation.- M.: 11/30/1994 N 51-FL
2.The federal law “About joint-stock companies”.-M.: 12/26/1995 N 208-FL
3.The federal law ""About banks and bank activity”. -M.: 12/2/1990 N 395-1
4.Anisimov A. Features of securities of assets of developing markets // Securities market. – 2006. – №22
5.Auto Loans Finance B.V. // Pre-Sale Report Moody’s Investors Service (13 July 2005)//http://www.moodys.com/
6.Barejsha I. Sekjuritizatsija: the success reasons//the Securities market. – 2004. – №4.
7.Credit system and credit relations//http://www.bishelp.ru/gde_dengi/kredit/baz/kred_sistema.php
8.Development of bank crediting system in Russia// Problems of modern economy, 2009.- N 4(28)
9.Ermasova N. Credit process stages. Management of the credit//h
Показать всеttp://www.inventech.ru/lib/money/money0055/. №12
10.Ermasova N. Stages of credit process. Management of the credit//Financial director, 2008.- №12
11.Hein, Scott E.; Koch, Timothy W.; MacDonald, S. Scott The changing role of commercial banks in the municipal securities market// Credit & Banking, 2001
12.Iseev R.Sekjuritizatsija of hypothecary credits: transaction economy//The securities market. – 2004. – №24. -4 p..
13.Kalashnikov Z.V.prospect of development of the mechanism of crediting of trading organisations by the Russian commercial banks//Financial management, 2008, №12.-10 p
14.Lukyanov E.R. Rissian credit market is not as big as in western // Financial management, 2009.-№4
15.Money. Credit. Banks The textbook for high schools / E.F.Zhukov, L.M.Maksimova, A.V.Pechnikova, etc.; Under the editorship of prof. E.F.Zhukov ""— М: Banks and stock exchanges, Unity, 2000. — 622 p.
16.Problems of f of credit system in Russia//http://vdollarah.ru/2009/09/19/problemy-formirovaniya-kreditnoj-sistemy-v-rossii/
17.Smirnov Е.Е. Ways of growing of crediting //Banking, 2009.-№4
18.Tarhanova E.A. Role and function of the commercial bank in Russian economy//http://bankdata.ru/modules/Articles/article.php?storyid=114
19.The Banking System of the Russian Federation http://russiatoday.strana.ru/en/biz/econ/bank_sys/2069.html
20.The credit market has stood in ""unstable balance "" //http://www.wfin.kz/node/4556
21.The general theory of money and the credit .Edited by E.F. Zhukov.-М.:Unity, 2003
22.Yan Art Credit Russia//Profil, 2009 Скрыть
As one of the organic laws regulating credit relations, it is possible to name FL "About banks and bank activity".
First of all, the specified law among other bank operations in item 5 defines such bank operation as placing of money resources on its own behalf and at own expense that is expressed actually in granting of credits companies and physical persons.
Besides, the specified law defines general provisions and requirements to activity realisation by the credit organisations, types, a procedure of bank operations and transactions, requirements to an authorised capital stock, constituent documents, management in the credit organisation, to a procedure for registration of the credit organisations and licensings of bank operations, requirements to the credit organisations concerning ob
Показать всеligatory reservation, protection of credit organisations interests, servicing, and also mutual relation between the credit organisations and general provisions on book keeping in the credit organisations.
Other federal laws also regulate the mutual relations. These federal laws regulate the credit relations only indirectly.
Federal Law "On joint-stock companies" is regarding approval by the borrower of fulfilment of large transactions, including a loan, the credit, pledge, the guarantee or the several interconnected transactions;
Federal Law "About the mortgage (real estate pledge)" is regarding state regulation, procedure and mortgage registration, as way of maintenance of the credit obligation;
Federal Law "On currency regulation and the currency control" is regarding granting of credits in a foreign currency and credit mutual relations between residents of the Russian Federation and non-residents;
Federal Law "About executive manufacture" is regarding realisation of compulsory execution of obligations of debtors before creditors, including debtors under credit obligations;
Federal Law "About precious metals and jewels" is regarding regulation of such way of maintenance of credit obligations, as grantings as proof of precious metals and jewels.
Besides resulted above federal laws the relations arising in the course of interaction of the parties concerning realisation of crediting, are regulated by other federal laws.
As an example of the certificates accepted in sphere of credit relations regulation, it is possible to result:
• the Letter of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation from 11/3/1992 № 101 "About an order of rates updating for using state the credit for replenishment of circulating assets";
• the Letter of the Finance Ministry of the Russian Federation from 4/23/1993 № 51 "About change of a payments procedure for using the target state credit for replenishment of circulating assets";
• the Letter of the Finance Ministry of the Russian Federation from 6/18/1996 № 313 "About an establishment of the uniform interest rate for using credits of commercial banks under guarantees of the Ministry of Finance of Russia";
• the Letter of the Finance Ministry of the Russian Federation from 9/22/2003 № 15-05-29 / 1018 "About currency transactions between residents on commercial credits and loans delivery in a foreign currency.
1.3 Commercial banks in credit system and their function
The term commercial bank has arisen at early stages of a banking development when banks served mainly trade (commerce), goods exchange operations and payments. Dealers were the basic clientele. Banks financed transportation, storage and other operations connected with barter. With industrial production development there were operations on short-term crediting of a production cycle: loans for working capital replenishment, creation of stocks of raw materials and finished articles, salary payment etc. Terms of credits gradually increased, the part of bank resources has started to be used for investments in a fixed capital, securities. In other words, the term “commercial bank” has lost the sense.10
Today commercial bank is capable to offer 200 kinds of various bank products and services. The wide diversification of operations allows banks to keep clients and to remain profitable at rather adverse economic conjuncture. It is necessary to consider that not all bank operations are present and are used in practice of concrete banking establishment (for example, performance of international payments). But there is a certain base set without which bank cannot work. Such operations are – reception of deposits; – realisation of monetary payments and calculations; – delivery of credits11.
Regular performance of the specified functions also creates that base of bank work. And though each kind of operations performance is concentrated in special departments of bank and carried out by a special group of employees, they intertwine among themselves. So, banks possess unique ability to create instrument of payment which are used in an economy for the organisation of the commodity reference and calculations. It is referred to opening and conducting the check and other accounts forming a basis of non-cash turn. The economy cannot exist and develop without well working system of monetary calculations.12
Creation of payment instrument is closely connected with depositary function of bank clients crediting. The deposit can arise in two ways: as a result of entering by the client of cash into bank or in the course of bank crediting. These operations will differently be reflected in size of monetary weight in the country. If the client has placed money on call deposit demand they have turned from cash to the cashless. The total sum of money in an economy has not changed. If money is enlisted on the deposit the total of money in an economy has increased as the bank the operation has created new means of payment. Return action occurs at removal by the client of cash from the account and at write-off of money from the deposit for credits repayment. Ability of commercial banks to increase and reduce deposits and monetary weight is widely used by the central bank which through system of obligatory reserves operates dynamics of the credit.
The second extensive functional field of bank activity is an intermediary in the credit. Commercial banks carry out a role of intermediaries between the economic units accumulating and requiring money resources. They give to owners spare capitals the convenient form of storage of money in the form of various deposits that provides safety of money resources and satisfies requirement of the client for liquidity. Such form of storage is more preferable to many clients, than an investment in the bond or the shares. The bank credit is rather convenient and the irreplaceable form of financial services which allows to consider borrower requirements and to adapt conditions of the loan reception for them (unlike a stock market where terms and other terms of loan are standardised)13.
Besides performance of base functions, bank offer clients set of other financial services. For example, banks carry out any confidential operations for corporations and the private persons connected with assignation in management to bank on a confidential basis, purchase for clients of securities, management of the real estate, performance of guarantee functions on bonded releases.
Commercial banks are the multipurpose institutions operating in various sectors of the market of the loan capital. Large commercial banks give to clients a full spectrum of services, including credits, reception of deposits etc. This is difference from specialised institutions which are limited by certain functions. Commercial banks traditionally play a role of a base link of credit system. An interlacing of functions of various kinds of credit institutions and popularity of universal type of bank the bank and bank activity creates known difficulties for definition of concepts. More often the main sign of bank activity reception of deposits and delivery of credits is considered.14
1.4 Credit process and its stages.
Credit process is a process of the organisation of bank crediting, consisting of set of consecutive stages: from consideration of the credit demand before repayment of loan debts (Picture 1 Credit process)
Picture 1.4.1 – Credit process
The first stage of credit process - programming – consists of macroeconomic situation estimation in the country as a whole, region of potential, the analysis of branch dynamics of the chosen directions of crediting, check of readiness of the personnel of a creditor bank to work with various categories of loan recipients, acceptance of some intrabank standard documents
The second stage is the granting of the bank loan forming a direct target monetary stream. According to the chosen directions, credit division employees carry out a demands acceptance on loan reception. Depending on crediting kinds (investment, short-term, crediting of companies, crediting of physical persons, both consumer, and business crediting of private businessmen) under the demand for the credit begins selection of the necessary documentation. Here the employee of credit division should carry out the economic analysis of the given documentation, to draw conclusions on market possibility and appeal of carrying out of active operation on credit granting15.
Let's consider this stage in details. So, in the course of crediting of the client the bank should receive answers the following questions:
1. Data on the client and its company:
1. The form of the company;
2. Date of registration of the company
3. Who owners of the company;
4. What profit of the company;
5. Whether the estimation of property offered as maintenance has been made;
6. Whether this property is subject to damage;
7. What costs for its storage;
8. The basic production of the company (or kinds of the basic services);
9. What experience and qualification of managers;
10. Who the basic clients-suppliers and buyers of the company;
11. What conditions the goods (service) are on sale.
2. Questions on the required credit:
1. The sum and currency which the borrower would like to receive;
2. How this sum is defined;
3. Is the the forecast reasonably enough;
4. Whether consider credit conditions, service life of the actives financed by means of the credit;
5. ability of the client to extinguish the credit in time.
3. Questions on credit repayment:
1. Is there for the client a special source of repayment of the credit;
2. How many a monetary cash the company receives during an operational cycle;
3. As the client assumes to repay the credit;
4 Are there the entity, ready to give a guarantee and what their financial position;
4. Questions on security of return of the credit:
1. What kind of maintenance;
2. Who the owner of maintenance;
3. Where and under whose control it is;
4. As the estimation of property offered as maintenance has been carried out.
5. Questions on relations of the client with other banks:
1. Why the client has come to this bank;
2. What services of banks the client uses now;
3. Whether he addressed for the credit to other banks;
4. Whether the client has outstanding credits, what their sum and repayment terms.
For decision-making bank has to define:
1. Gravity, reliability and credit status of the borrower, its reputation as possible partner in business. Especially it concerns new clients;
2. Credit demand validity and security degree of credit return. The bank can develop the requirements to the credit offer and acquaint with them the borrower;
3. Credit offer conformity to the bank credit policy and structure of its credit portfolio. Whether granting of the new credit of the further diversification of a credit portfolio and to decrease in credit risk or return results will lead16.
The main point of the credit demand analysis and accompanying documents is definition of borrower character and its credit status.
Picture 1.4.2 - Analysis of credit demand
Such complex approach will allow understanding, on the one hand, the mechanism of bank credits granting, both short-term, and long-term, and with another — to analyse functions of credit experts at various stages of credit process for the purpose of development of offers on its optimisation17 (Appendix 2 Mechanism of crediting).
Picture 1.4.3 – Complex approach
The following stage of credit process in bank is a management of the credit. It is necessary to divide into management of the loan capital at macrolevel and microlevel. Credit relations development in interrelation with macroeconomic proportions is always important to analyze and macroleve, together with volumes and structure of credit investments in economy to the decision of problems on increase in a total internal product, development of a monetary turn, investments, inflation decrease etc.
At microlevel management of crediting process provides working out and observance the strategy of credit operations development of each separate bank, search, selection of clients, credit status studying, control of credit use in an economy of the borrower etc. Through process short-term and long-term crediting there is a function of monetary streams redistribution in a country financial system. Business unit demand for circulating assets is satisfied with the offer from commercial banks of free financial resources involved in turn from the deposits market and private contributions. In general credit process is a reception and ways of credit relations realisation located in certain sequence and accepted by given bank. Crediting process is the difficult procedure consisting from several cumulative stages.
Market level formation of loan interests deviation from average rate have influenced as to the general factors operating at macrolevel, and private, underlying carrying out of a interests policy of separate creditors. Number of the general factors are:
1. Level of the rate of refinancing;
2. A parity of a supply and demand;
3. A regulating orientation of a policy of the Central bank of the Russian Federation;
4. Degree of inflationary depreciation of money.
The parity of a supply and demand credit is counterbalanced. It promotes a rational combination of own and borrowed funds. In the conditions of market formation of loan percent level attracted in a turn of borrowed funds is the credit of time and necessary additional requirements favourable only at a covering. Any excessive use of the credit reduces the general level of profitability of investments.
By interest regulation the volume of deposits is carried out. Growth of requirements in credits should be covered by a corresponding gain of bank deposits as credit facilities. It conducts to increase of depositary interest rates till the size counterbalancing the deposits offer and demand for them from outside of bank. On the contrary, at economy requirements reduction in credits bank incomes of given loans will decrease. Bank can increase profit by reduction of passive operations. Thus, reduction of resources inflow in credit system is reaction to decrease in requirements of an economy in extra means.
The interest bearing police of commercial bank is directed today on corresponding management of liquidity of its balance.
The level differentiation of loan interests on active operations depending on liquidity of investments leads to conformity of demand for the brave credit from outside borrowers to requirements of banks balance liquidity. The percent role on depositary operations as attraction stimulus of the steadiest means in a credit institution turn is similarly traced.
Established by the Central bank of the Russian Federation the payment rate of a for resources along with norm of obligatory reserves and conditions of release and the reference of the state securities gradually becomes a management effective remedy commercial banks. Without resorting to direct regulation of the interest bearing police of the last, the Central bank of the Russian Federation defines unity of a percentage policy in economy scales, stimulating increase or fall of interest rates.
1.5 Principles of crediting.
The credit policy of commercial bank is based on certain principles of crediting, i.e. under certain conditions the bank gives separate categories of credit to separate borrowers. In bank practice promptness and reflexivity differentiation, availability against interest payments, security and a target orientation.
Promptness of the credit assumes that the credit have to be returned in precisely certain term established by the credit contract. Credit payment period is the basis for the creditor to apply to the borrower penal sanctions, for example increase in the raised percent, and at the further delay (in Russia - over three months) - credit returning in the full sum and percent on the credit in a judicial order.
Credit reflexivity means necessity of credit return for the certain term established in the credit contract. Terms of credit return are established taking into account its special-purpose designation, a kind and crediting term. The credit reflexivity means normal functioning of bank and all bank system, and, accordingly, credit reflexivity has huge value for stable functioning of all economy.
At the present stage of formation and bank system development, in the conditions of unstable economic in the Russian Federation the problem of maintenance of a credit timely reflexivity is one of the most important practical problems facing to commercial banks.
The credit reflexivity is closely connected with its maintenance, i.e. depends on ability of the borrower to give necessary and sufficient guarantees of timely return of the credit. Credit security expresses necessity of property interest’s protection of the creditor at possible infringement by the borrower of the obligations taken up18.
Nowadays it is impossible to be assured that the borrower will return the credit and will pay percent on it even if its financial condition is stable also directions of an investment of means are favorable. Therefore the question on firm maintenance, i.e. on additional guarantees of its reflexivity is very important.
The most widespread forms of maintenance are pledge, guarantees of banks, insurance of credits. The most reliable maintenance is banks guarantees. Besides it registration is not connected with additional difficulties. If the bank-guarantor is reliable to make the decision on credit delivery it is much easier.
The major problem of banks is development of all listed forms of reflexivity maintenance on the basis of the new legislation and world experience in practice.
As a whole maintenance of a reflexivity of the credit is the multiplane process consisting in reception by banks of as much as possible full, exact and actual information on the borrower, an estimation its credit status by the analysis of financial condition and the purpose. After carrying out of such work the bank makes the decision on granting (or an unaccordance) of the credit and defines its sizes, the interest rate under the credit, an repayment order of the loan and percent payment, and also every possible privileges and penal sanctions.
Maintenance of credits reflexivity includes skilful management of actives, observance of a principle of a diversification of actives (and passives) in order to avoid the big financial losses and bank bankruptcy.
Interest payments are expressed that the borrower has to pay to the bank for the temporary use of money. The principle interest payments is realized by bank through the percentage policy of bank, i.e. the payment for credits is raised in the form of the percent which size is established by the agreement between the creditor and the borrower in the credit contract. The credit interest rate is a cost of bank resources is provided compensation of expenses on supplementary operations and the maintenance of employees, reception of profit and other expenses of bank.
Interest payments carry out following functions:
- Redistribution free money resources legal and physical persons; Скрыть
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