Обучение лексике на уроках английского языка в средней школе
CHAPTER I THEORETICAL BASE OF THE INVESTIGATION
1.1 English as a subject and its place in academic curriculum
1.2 Communicative approach as a goal in teaching English
1.3 Difficulties of studying English vocabulary and the ways to overcome them
1.3.1 Phrasal Verbs
1.3.2 Word Derivation
1.4 Different Age Groups in Studying English
1.5 Different Levels of English
1.6 Studying English with Pupils of Different Levels
1.6.1 Studying English with the Beginners
1.6.2 Intermediate Level
1.6.3 Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Levels
CHAPTER II TEACHING AND DEVELOPING VOCABULARY IN MIDDLE SCHOOL
2.1 Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary
2.2 Vocabulary Games and Activities
1.Beck, I.L., M.G. McKeown, and L. Kucan. 2002. Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.
2.Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2000)." Vocabulary instruction." In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. 3 (pp. 503-523). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
3.Bolinger, Dwight. The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. – P. xii.
4.Brown, Jean E., Phillips, Lela B., and Stephens, Elaine C. (1993). Towards literacy: theory and applications for teaching writing in the content areas. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
5.Chomsky N. Aspects of the theory of syntax. – Cambridge, 1965. – Р. 29.
6.Crystal David. The Penguin Dictionary of Language. - Penguin Books - England – 1999.
7.Crystal, David. Cambridge
Показать всеEncyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. – P.118.
8.D.W., & Moore, S.A. (1986). "Possible sentences." In Reading in the content areas: Improving classroom instruction. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
9.David Nunan. World's Leading Textbook Author, Anaheim University Press, accessed February 9th, 2007.
10.Description of levels . British Council: http://www.britishcouncil.org/ru/colombia-english-learn-english-in-colombia-courses-for-adults-description-of-levels.htm
11.Graves, M.F. 2000. A vocabulary program to complement and bolster a middle-grade comprehension program. In B.M. Taylor, M.F. Graves, and P. Van Den Broek (eds.), Reading for meaning: Fostering comprehension in the middle grades. Mew York: Teachers College Press.
12.Hayes, D.A., & Henk, W.A. (1986). "Understanding and remembering complex prose augmented by analogic and pictorial illustration." Journal of Reading Behavior, 18, 63-77.
13.How To Teach Vocabulary: http://www.teaching-quotes.net/how_to_teach_vocabulary/how_to_teach_vocabulary.html
14.Johnson, D. D. & Pearson, P. D. (1984). Teaching reading vocabulary. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
15.Kimberly L. Keith “Help Your Child Learn Writing Skills” http://childparenting.about.com/od/learningenrichment/a/writingskills.htm
16.Kolln, Martha and Robert Funk. Understanding English Grammar. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. – P.35.
17.Lenski, Susan D., Wham, Mary Ann, & Johns, Jerry L. (1999). Reading and learning strategies for middle and high school pupils. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
18.McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. – P.773.
19.National Reading Panel. 2000. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. pp. 4–15.
20.Paul Nation. New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary: http://www.knigka.su/english/uch_english/111168-New_Ways_in_Teaching_Vocabulary_Paul_Nation.html
21.Rackham J., Bertagnalli O. From Sight to Insight.-The Dryden Press, 1988.
22.Scott, J.A., and W.E. Nagy. 2004. Developing word consciousness. In J.F. Baumann and E.J. Kame’enui (eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice. New York: Guilford.
23.Sellin R., Winters E. Cross-Cultural Communication. Internationalization of Documentation. Internet Communucation. http: //www.bena.com/ewinters/sect7. html, 1999.
24.Shawna Shapiro. Working with multilingual (esl) students tutor training workshop: http://staff.washington.edu/shapis/WCtutors_ESLWorkshop_Fall07.doc
25.Sheryl Holt. Responding to Non-Native Speakers of English: http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_speakers.html
26.Stahl, S.A. 2005. Four problems with teaching word meanings (and what to do to make vocabulary an integral part of instruction). In E.H. Hiebert and M.L. Kamil (eds.), Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
27.Susan Jindrich “Help your children learn to write” http://www.meddybemps.com/7.22.html
28.Vacca, R.D., Vacca J. (1995). Content area reading. (5th. Ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
29.Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12. Stenhouse Publishers. 1999. 160 P.
30.Мильруд Р.П. Методика преподавания английского языка. English Teaching Methodolgy. Изд-во: Дрофа, 2005. – 256 с.
Key cultural achievements of this period were the first official publication of the Bible in English (the Saint James Bible) and the immense corpus of William Shakespeare's literary enterprise, and that of other writers. Shakespeare contributed a wealth of newly coined and/or borrowed English words.
The word set for naming a person riding a horse provides an illustrative interim summary for the development of English vocabulary up to this point. The simplest option is rider (from the Anglo-Saxon ritter, horseman entered through the influence of the Vikings' Old Norse *hross. Knight, originally Old English *cniht, began being used around 1300. Cavalier (from French chevalier), or the elegantly elevated equestrian, directly derived from Latin, comprise the more elevated choices here.
Показать всеmore published material in English, England's rise to power under Elizabeth 1, and increased English influence on international business and trade, diplomacy, and colonialism, English was brought to the fore as the national language of England, proudly used by all the English people. The year 1650 marks the transition into the Modern English period. Further factors contributed to the growth of English as a powerful language.
Political upheavals led to the rise of port towns and former lower classes that further strengthened common English usage. The publication of the first comprehensive and official dictionary of the English language by Samuel Johnson in 1755 began the process of canonizing the written language. As education in English was now being offered to the masses, who also enjoyed access to libraries in English, more and more people could enrich their vocabularies and improve their English language aptitude.
The scientific revolution and renewed interest in the classics during the 19th century have opened the gate for yet another wave of scientific and technical terms for newly found concepts and discoveries – all derived from Greek and Latin roots, prefixes and suffixes. The current proportion of Latin words in English is 29%, while Greek contributes about 6%.
The British colonization of North America, Australia and parts of Asia and Africa has resulted in the creation of whole continents speaking English, which in turn has been enriched by the mother tongues of locals and immigrants. In 1828, Noah Webster published the first official dictionary of American English, which established differences in spelling between British and American English and further paved the way to differences in vocabulary between these two language varieties.
The rise of the mass media during the 20th century: newspapers, cinema, radio, television and The Internet have given the latest push to English in becoming a global language, as English is the main language used. This in turn brings more words into English from just about any other language on the planet but also has the potential to disintegrate English itself to new emerging local English varieties.
A steady influx of international words has been coming in during the past two centuries. In sum, other languages than Germanic, French, Latin and Greek have contributed 6% to the vocabulary of English, while the 4 % remaining derive from proper names. The riches of the English vocabulary allow us to use a vast array of word synonyms to express subtle nuances in meaning. Familiarity with the origins of the words and their shades of meaning can help you make the right choice in your English writing.
In infer it from context or from its structure, or look up the word in the dictionary.
Context is a challenging way to present a new word by embedding it in a sentence for the students to guess (to infer) the meaning of the new word: the little boy begged the man to follow him. He pulled on his arm and said; "please, come with me." This is a good technique but it may be followed by silence either because the context is unclear or because the students have some listening (reading) problems.
For all the defenses in methods and approaches of teaching and learning vocabulary at university a great role belongs to the teacher because:
1. The teacher should be up to date regarding the vocabulary curriculum.
2. The teacher should plan instruction effectively.
3. The teacher should plan control and assessment of students' learning vocabulary effectively.
4. The teacher should monitor students' understanding of the curriculum effectively and adjusts instruction, materials, or assessments when appropriate.
5. The teacher should create an environment that is positive for student learning and involvement.
6. The teacher should make learning goals clear to students.
7. The teacher should use appropriate instructional techniques.
8. The teacher should evaluate and try innovative approaches, and refine instructional strategies, including the effective use of technologies, to increase student learning and confidence to learn.
9. The teacher should strive to ensure equitable opportunities for student learning.
10. The teacher should be a reflective and continuous learner: a language learner once, a language learner always.
Teachers find it necessary to explain the meaning of a new word or a phrase to the students. The aim should be to explain the new word as quickly and as efficiently as possible. The following activities may be used
1. Showing a real object (direct, non-verbal, verbal)
To explain new words "pen", "schoolbag", "blackboard", "apple", etc. we can show real objects in the classroom. This is very easy to teach some words but it is also limited to things that you cannot bring into the classroom, such as "elephant", "bus", etc.
2. Showing a picture (direct. non-verbal, verbal)
Pictures can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items, to create a situation or a context. Stick figures, blackboard drawings, charts, flashcards, posters, etc. are included in this category.
3. Using actions, facial expressions, body language (direct)
It is often impossible to explain the meaning of a word through pictures. Body language, actions,facial expressions, mime and mimics, gestures are used to help the students understand the meaning of a word. e.g. teacher pretends to jump, hold, kiss, etc. teacher gestures back, to, from, etc.
1.3 Different Age Groups in Studying English
While learning English as a foreign language traditionally three districts of learner populations usually are recognized: secondary school pupils, university pupils, and adult language learners.
The knowledge of a foreign language has become one of the basic skills that opens the door to a world of great opportunities, so it’s important to think about how you’re going to study a language early on. The human brain possesses the unique ability of language mastery, but unfortunately this ability fades with age and as we all know it’s much harder to teach an old dog new tricks. Of course, (unless you are from an English-speaking country), the best language to learn first is English, the lingua franca of the 21st century.
Studied topics should have information appropriate to their age.
Children play games a lot, work on projects, study authentic language teaching videos and movies, learn songs and do many other things. Study of grammar and vocabulary at any level is built upon the material studied at the previous level with the addition of new peculiarities, words and phrases.
English Grammar is introduced at this level. Children study the alphabet, basic grammar aspects (pronouns, plurals of nouns, Present Simple, forming questions, positive and negative answers, and numbers 20+).
Main topics: myself, countries and languages, house, animals, calendar, climate and seasons, time, clothes, flowers and colours.
After finishing this level children will learn to use in speech the Present Progressive Tense, degrees of comparisons of adjectives and Past Simple. Pupils will be able to tell about their family and school, city and country, talk about food and order refreshments at a cafe, write a letter to a friend, describe their house or apartment, and talk about music or weather.
Main topics: country life, holidays and traditions of Britain, about Solar system, healthy food, weather and natural phenomenon, about the life of cave people and many others.
By the end of this course children will be able to use Past Simple, tell about their plans and intentions, speak about a healthy way of life, environmental issues, sports, their likes and dislikes, politely enquire about some information and make a refusal or thank a person.
Main topics: ecology, discoveries and inventions, electricity in our lives, international trade.
In this course children will be taught to use the Past Progressive Tense, the Present and Past Perfect Tenses, Future Simple, Conditionals I and II. Special focus is on speaking. Authentic movies and literature are used a lot.
Main topics: world of machines, music styles, how youth news is made, mysteries and puzzles of the Universe.
More complex grammar is studied at this level, special attention is paid to enriching vocabulary and speaking and writing. Authentic movies and literature are used a lot.
Learning a vocabulary is a developmental process. It is necessary to begin to form vocabulary skills as early as possible. When small children begin to learn a foreign language their parents should control the process and help them, no matter, if they know the language or not. They can consult a teacher and help the children in this way.
In order children could express his thoughts with the help of a foreign language without any fear they should observe some rules. There are some word-learning strategies. They are:
Cognate Awareness (ELL)
According to the National Reading Panel,15 explicit instruction of vocabulary is highly effective. To develop vocabulary intentionally, pupils should be explicitly taught both specific words and word-learning strategies. To deepen pupils' knowledge of word meanings, specific word instruction should be robust.16 Seeing vocabulary in rich contexts provided by authentic texts, rather than in isolated vocabulary drills, produces robust vocabulary learning.17 Such instruction often does not begin with a definition, for the ability to give a definition is often the result of knowing what the word means. Rich and robust vocabulary instruction goes beyond definitional knowledge; it gets pupils actively engaged in using and thinking about word meanings and in creating relationships among words.
Research shows that there are more words to be learned than can be directly taught in even the most ambitious program of vocabulary instruction. Explicit instruction in word-learning strategies gives pupils tools for independently determining the meanings of unfamiliar words that have not been explicitly introduced in class. Since pupils encounter so many unfamiliar words in their reading, any help provided by such strategies can be useful.
Word-learning strategies include dictionary use, morphemic analysis, and contextual analysis. For ELLs whose language shares cognates with English, cognate awareness is also an important strategy. Dictionary use teaches pupils about multiple word meanings, as well as the importance of choosing the appropriate definition to fit the particular context. Morphemic analysis is the process of deriving a word's meaning by analyzing its meaningful parts, or morphemes. Such word parts include root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Contextual analysis involves inferring the meaning of an unfamiliar word by scrutinizing the text surrounding it. Instruction in contextual analysis generally involves teaching pupils to employ both generic and specific types of context clues.
A more general way to help pupils develop vocabulary is by fostering word consciousness, an awareness of and interest in words. Word consciousness is not an isolated component of vocabulary instruction; it needs to be taken into account each and every day.18 It can be developed at all times and in several ways: through encouraging adept diction, through word play, and through research on word origins or histories. According to Graves,19 "If we can get pupils interested in playing with words and language, then we are at least halfway to the goal of creating the sort of word-conscious pupils who will make words a lifetime interest."
One principle of effective vocabulary learning is to provide multiple exposures to a word's meaning. There is great improvement in vocabulary when pupils encounter vocabulary words often.20 According to Stahl,21 pupils probably have to see a word more than once to place it firmly in their long-term memories. "This does not mean mere repetition or drill of the word," but seeing the word in different and multiple contexts. In other words, it is important that vocabulary instruction provide pupils with opportunities to encounter words repeatedly and in more than one context.
It is necessary to use some speech patterns in everyday speech. Even if parents do not know the foreign language their child studies they can consult their teacher or some reference books and to write some messages for their children, such as “Good morning”, “Hello”. It is also to play with children leaving some written hints for them about a hidden present. For example “Go to the kitchen”, “Look into the fridge” and so on. This gives a child the opportunity to see meaningful written language as it is being constructed.
To teach a small child to write it is necessary to observe some rules:
1) Encourage children in all their efforts;
2) Do not worry if the letters are out of order or backwards;
3) Provide plenty of vocabulary materials;
4) Be ready to write words for them to copy when they ask you;
5) Show pride in their efforts 22;
6) Don’t be discouraged by your elementary child's lack of vocabulary skill;
7) Encourage practice, build his fund of language, talk about everything;
8) Don’t be critical of creative writing efforts;
9) Make it fun to encourage a love of vocabulary from an early age.23.
1.4 Different Levels of English
We use a five-level system of aptitude which gives a very comprehensive description of speech and language skills and content for each level. But level intermediate has its own subdivision into three parts. The descriptions for each level apply to a learner at the top of that level, not to one just entering it.
1. Post-beginner can understand a few everyday expressions of simple functions in known situations, and can produce some single words and set phrases in response, or can make requests using, for example, a single word + 'please' ('Salt, please'). Little structural grasp, except in reading, where (s)he can recognise the existence of a few basic structural contrasts (e.g. singular/plural or continuous v. simple) even if not always certain exactly what they mean. Can substitute items in one or two structural patterns in writing, but not manipulate the patterns any further.
2. Elementary can understand many simple expressions of everyday basic functions in familiar situations and sometimes grasp what the basic topic of a conversation in English is. Can produce understandable questions and answers involving information above basic (e.g. Not only 'What is your name?' but ‘What does your father do?') even if structures often go wrong and words are not known. In reading can follow very simplified stories or information, and recognise the meanings of a number of structural contrasts (e.g. ‘the’/‘a’ or ‘I go’/‘I'm going’), and can write a few simple but connected sentences on a given topic with some awareness of the forms required, even if not always using them correctly.
3. Lower (or pre-)intermediate can understand the gist of a commonplace conversation in English, though not in detail, and can produce English well enough to take part if spoken to carefully.
Can also initiate conversation by asking questions on a range of everyday topics (e.g. sport, or food) and can perform most everyday social and practical functions (e.g. buying things in shops, going to the doctor) well enough to survive comfortably. In reading can grasp the full meaning (content) including details, of simpler authentic texts (e.g. instructions on a packet) with the exception of a few of the less common words, including understanding the sense of most basic structures (e.g. verb tense and modals). Can write coherent short compositions using simple but varied structures correctly on a variety of non-specialist topics (e.g. telling stories, personal letters, giving and explaining an opinion).
4. Mid-intermediate can understand the gist of a commonplace conversation involving fluent speakers, provided that some allowances are made, or occasional help given. Can produce well enough to make substantial relevant contributions (e.g. of an example or story clearly related to the topic) and to get full and satisfactory information from other speakers by questioning as necessary. Is functionally competent for all everyday negotiations except where completely unpredictable problems arise.
In reading can get the gist/intention of most straightforward (i.e. non-stylised) authentic texts and can write effective communications of information or opinion, but perhaps with a number of errors, or problems arising from inability to handle some of the more complex structures.
5. Upper intermediate can understand well enough to hold a continuous conversation with a native speaker, even where the speaker does not, or can not, adapt his/her language to a foreigner. Can produce well enough to initiate new topics, change the subject, and generally take part in the management of the conversation rather than merely responding.
Can manage all normal life functions with ease, and cope linguistically with completely new situations (e.g. a negotiation in a shop not going according to expectations). In reading, can understand the majority of any non-specialist, modern text and begin to respond to different 'registers' or types of writing. Can produce fluent writing on most kinds of topic, including arguing for an opinion, and can use complex sentence structures without many errors. A learner at the top of this level should be able to achieve a good pass in the Cambridge First Certificate exam.
6. Advanced can understand native speakers of everyday standard English, even when not being directly addressed, and can therefore take part in normal interaction on almost the same terms as a native speaker. Can produce speech fluent enough to convey feeling, to argue and maintain a point of view, or to convey complex information (e.g. explaining a process) to a listener. In reading, can use specialist books written in English to acquire specialist knowledge (including new terminology), can recognise and respond to different styles of writing and, to some extent, to shades of meaning. Can write fluently and with relatively few errors, not only on any topic but also in a range of styles (e.g. narrative, formal argument, business letters, prepared public speaking). A learner at the top of this level should be able to achieve a good pass in the Cambridge Advanced exam.
7. Proficient native speaker standard in every skill, with two major differences: a) in understanding, a lack of long familiarity with English culture (e.g. television programmes) may make some accents, dialects and cultural references less accessible than they would be to a native speaker; b) on the other hand, a Proficient pupil may well be more at home - in all skills - with the more academically educated kind of English used in colleges, textbooks etc., than is normal with native speakers taken as a whole. A learner at the top of this level should be able to achieve a good pass in the Cambridge Proficiency exam
1.5 Studying English with Pupils of Different Levels
1.5.1 Studying English with the Beginners
According to Michael Graves,24 there are four components of an effective vocabulary program: Скрыть
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