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Strategic human resources management as a tool of developing competitiveness of firm on example of Academy of Russian ballet
Chapter 1. Competiveness of organization: estimation and factors of influence
1.1 Term competiveness and levels of it’s analyzes
1.2 Evolution of programs of waging competitive struggle
1.2.1 Quality circles
1.2.2 Sigma Six
1.3 Influence of human resources on competitiveness of organization
2.1 The competence as a basis of the strategic approach to human resources management
2.2 Instruments of strategic human resources management
2.2.1 Strategic Стратегический personnel selection
2.2.2 Strategic personnel estimation
2.2.3 Strategic personnel compensation
2.2.4 Strategic personnel development
2.3 Implementation of personnel strategy
Chapter 3. Working out of human resources management strategy at Academy of Russian ballet
3.1 Characteristic of Academy of Russian
Показать всеballet and its management models
3.2 The analysis of personnel selection of Academy of Russian ballet
3.3 Experience of personnel selection in European high schools
3.4 Offers on personnel selection perfection in Academy of Russian ballet
List of the used sources and literature
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Показать всевеческими ресурсами. М.: Питер, 2004. 832 c.)
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8.Fathutdinov R. A. Upravlenie konkurentnosposobnostju organizazii. M. 2005. 544 p. (Фатхутдинов Р.А. Управление конкурентоспособностью организации. М.: Эксмо, 2005. 544 c.)
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10.Fomban Ch. J. Strategicheskoe upravlenie chelovecheskimi resursami // Kurs MBA po menedjmentu. Pod red. Alena R. Koena. M. 2003. P. 365. (Фомбан Ч. Дж. Стратегическое управление человеческими ресурсами // Курс МВА по менеджменту. Под ред. Алена Р. Коэна. М., 2003. С. 365).
11.Hamel G., Prahalad C.K. Strategic intent // Harvard Business Review. 1989. May-June. P. 63-76.
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13.Kartashova L. V. Strategiya upravleniya chelovecheskimi resursami I ozenka ee effektivnosti. M. 2003. 236 р. (Карташова Л.В. Стратегия управления человеческими ресурсами и оценка ее эффективности. М.: Инфра-М, 2003. 236 с.)
14.Lawler E.E. Creating a Strategic Human Resources Organization: An Assessment of Trends and New Directions. Stanford, 2003. P. 29.
15.Novojilov I. S. Ozenka konkurentnosposobnosti predpriyatiya chernoi metallurgii na primere OAO “NTMK” I OAO “MMK” // URL: http://ntpg.tagil.ru/blackmetal/index.php?cat=5&pages=0 (Новожилов И.С. Оценка конкурентоспособности предприятий черной металлургии, на примере ОАО «НТМК» и ОАО «ММК» // URL: http://ntpg.tagil.ru/blackmetal/index.php?cat=5&pages=0)
16.Odegov U. G., Juravlev P. V. Upravlenie personalom. M. 2005. 1088 р. (Одегов Ю.Г., Журавлев П.В. Управление персоналом. М.: Академический проект, 2005. 1088 с.)
17.Pande P., Holl L. Chto takoe “shest sigm”? Revoluzionnii metod upravleniya kachestvom M. 2004 (Панде П.,, Холл Л. Что такое «шесть сигм»? Революционный метод управления качеством. М., 2004.)
18.Porter M. Konkurentnoe preimuschestvo. Kak dostich visokogo rezultata I obespechit ego ustoichivost. M. 2005. 715 с. (Портер М. Конкурентное преимущество. Как достичь высокого результата и обеспечить его устойчивость. М.: Альпина Бизнес Бокс, 2005. 715 с.)
19.Povishenie konkurentnosposobnosti kompanii: formirovanie rinochnoi strategii I ee prakticheskoe osuschestvlenie // razjyasneniya, soveti I rekomendazii spezialistov v oblasti prakticheskogo marketinga V. V. Kevorkova I D. V. Kevorkova. 2005. № 12. P. 10 (Повышение конкурентоспособности компании: формирование рыночной стратегии и ее практическое осуществление // Разъяснения, советы и рекомендации специалистов в области практического маркетинга В.В. Кеворкова и Д.В. Кеворкова. 2005. №12. С. 10.)
20.Roberts G. Recruitment and Selection: A competency approach. London, 1997. Р. 54.
21.Shekshnya S. V. Upravlenie personalom sovremennoi organizazii. M. 2004. 363 р. (Шекшня С.В. Управление персоналом современной организации. М.: Нева, 2004. 363 с.)
22.Ulrich D. Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations // MITSloan Management Review. 1998. Vol. 39. №.2. P. 15–26.
23.Upravlenie personalom. Pod red. T. U. Bazarova. M, 2004. // URL: http://www.cfin.ru/management/people/pmanbook-5-2.shtml (Управление персоналом. Под ред. Т.Ю. Базарова. М., 2004. // URL: http://www.cfin.ru/management/people/pmanbook-5-2.shtml)
24.Utkin E. A., Kochetkova A. I. Upravlenie personalom v malom I srednem biznese. M. 1996. P. 113-115 (Уткин Э.А. Кочеткова А.И. Управление персоналом в малом и среднем бизнесе. М. , 1996. С. 113-115.)
25.Wood R., Payne T. Competency-based Recruitment and Selection. Wiley, Chichester, 1998. Р. 104.
Leaders of the company approve the program and put up the aim.
The task of the financial purposes, time borders and preparation of a command of leaders of a highest level and "champions" on expansion.
Creation of the plan of expansion: uses of metrics, realisation of communications, attraction of human resources, carrying out of vocational training of "black belt" and financing of projects of "black belt".
Preparation of project “champions”26 and “black belts”.
Preparation of “green belts”27 of “Six Sigma” and leaders of commands on developing process.
Introduction of the given strategy directly is connected with work of the personnel of this or that organisation. The prominent aspect is a compensation of the
Показать всеpersonnel which has been involved in working out and the subsequent realisation of strategy «Sigma six».
Thus, objects of all three considered concepts on competitiveness increase are the goods and services and increase of their quality. While the potential of human resources is involved in increase of competitiveness of the company. Therefore in the following of a part of work the accent will be made on influence of the personnel of the organisation on its competitiveness.
1.3 Influence of human resources on competitiveness of organization
Competitiveness of the organisation is a very essential factor of success of its activity in the market.
The more the organisation has competitive advantages before the present and potential competitors, the above its competitiveness, survivability, efficiency, perspectivity. For this purpose it is necessary to raise scientific level of management (first of all at the expense of qualified personnel).
Strategic management of human resources also defines influence of human resources on competitiveness of the organisation. So, «the basis for strategic management of human resources is that notable advantage which gives presence of the co-ordinated and realised base for working out of approaches to management of the people, calculated on long prospect. At the heart of this base the idea of achievement of competitive advantage through management of human resources lies: competitive advantage is the basic essence of competitive strategy. It comprises abilities, resources, the relation and decisions which allow any organisation to use favorable possibilities arising in the market and to avoid the dangers, able to prevent it to take desirable positions»28.
G.Hamel and K.Prahalad consider that advantages in a competition can achieve, if the firm receives and will develop human resources which will allow it to be trained faster and more effectively to apply the knowledge, than its competitors29.
J. Barney in the article «Resources of the company and steady competitive advantage» asserts that «steady competitive advantage results from acquisition and an effective utilisation of group of the distinctive resources, which competitors cannot copy. Unique talents of workers, including excellent indicators of work, productivity, flexibility, innovations and ability to provide high level of personal service of customers is what can be given for achievement of a strong competitive position of the organisation People furnish the clue to management of an axis of interactions between services of the organisation and an external environment. It is possible to tell that the doubtless benefit resulting competitive advantage, based on effective management of people, that this advantage is difficult for repeating»30.
Strategy, policy and practice of human resources of the organisation are a unique combination of processes, procedures, people, styles, abilities and organizational culture. One of keys to advantage achievement in competitive struggle is ability to establish distinction meanwhile that the given organisation and that its competitors can give to the customers. Such difference can be reached in the presence of strategy of human resources which in turn provides: 1. Shots of given more quality company, than at its competitors; 2. The unique intellectual capital which the given company possesses, develops and trained; 3. The culture which encourages organizational training develops31.
The purpose of the approach focused on resources is improvement of quality of resources – achievement of strategic conformity between resources and favorable possibilities and reception of the added cost from effective placing of resources. According to the theory of the intellectual capital, the approach focused on resources underlines that capital investments in shots increase their value for firm. The approach focused on resources, on Barneu, can develop strategic possibilities32.
The strategy focused on resources, thus, is engaged in expansion of the intellectual capital of the company. «The knowledge became direct advantage in competitive struggle for the companies selling ideas and the relations. The organisation problem – to provide possibility to find, adapt, pay and keep those talented people who are necessary for them»33.
That is the approach focused on resources to strategic management of human resources gives particular attention to satisfaction of requirements of the intellectual capital of the organisation.
Considering human resources as the basic source of competitive advantage, we will consider three basic approaches to working out of strategy of management by the personnel, offered by R.Richardson and M.Thompson:
• The approach of "the best practical decision» is based on belief that there is a set of excellent practical decisions of management of the personnel which is if being applied, will improve indicators of work of the organisation;
• The approach of "the best conformity» is based on belief that there can not be universal recipes for rules and practical decisions of management by human resources (they depend on an environment of the organisation, its culture and business strategy);
• "The configuration" approach places emphasis on search of a distinctive configuration – systems of the built in practical decisions of human resources which in a combination to concrete functions of the organisation are more effective than if they existed as not connected units. This concept is usually called «linkage in one knot»34.
Strategy of conducting competitive struggle should coincide with management strategy by human resources. One of variants has been offered by Michael Porterom. So, on the first place it has put strategy of achievement of competitive advantage through innovations. In strategy of management by the personnel it has received following expression:
• Maintenance with resources: a set and deduction of the highly skilled workers capable to innovations and with an operational experience in this sphere;
• Development of human resources: to develop strategic abilities and to increase possibilities for expansion of abilities to innovations, to strengthen the intellectual capital of the organisation;
• Compensation: to provide financial stimulus and compensation, and also a recognition for successful innovations35.
The next strategy is achievement of competitive advantage through improvement of quality. In strategy of management by the personnel it has received following expression:
• Maintenance with resources: use of the complicated procedures of selection at employment to take people who with the greatest probability will introduce high quality and a high degree of service to the customer;
• Development of human resources: to encourage organisation development, to develop and introduce managerial processes by knowledge; to support the initiatives directed on cumulative quality and care of the client at purposeful vocational training;
• Compensation: to co-ordinate compensation with indicators of quality and a high degree of service of customers36.
Strategy of achievement of competitive advantage through leadership in costs in strategy of management by the personnel has received following expression:
• Maintenance with resources: to develop employment procedures in the centre and on periphery; to accept those employees who with the greatest probability will introduce the added cost; it is humane to plan and spend staff reduction;
• Development of human resources: to provide the training directed on increase of productivity; to enter vocational training according to pressing needs of business which can raise efficiency of expenses aloud;
• Compensation: revision of practice of payment of compensations so that they provided value of money resources and did not lead to unnecessary expenses37.
And, at last, strategy of achievement of competitive advantage by employment of people, the better than at competitors became last strategy described by Porter. In strategy of personnel management it has received following expression:
• Maintenance with resources: application of the complicated procedures of employment and selection of the employees based on the careful analysis of special abilities, necessary for the organisation;
• Development of human resources: development of processes of organizational training; encouragement of self-training by means of plans of personal development as component of managerial process by work indicators;
• Compensation: to develop managerial processes by indicators of work which will allow to adhere both financial, and not financial compensations to level of the competence and professional skill; maintenance of competitive levels of payment38.
Increase of competitiveness of the organisation is promoted also by high level of competitiveness of the personnel.
The estimation of competitiveness of the personnel should be carried out proceeding from its competitive advantages which happen external under the relation to the personnel and internal. External competitive advantage of the personnel is defined by competitiveness of the organisation in which the concrete worker, the manager or the expert works. If at the organisation high level of competitiveness also the personnel has good external conditions for achievement of high level of competitiveness. Internal competitive advantages of the personnel can be hereditar. Only exclusively presented people in a smaller measure depend on external conditions.
It is possible to name following qualities of the personnel which influence its competitive advantage:
• Competitiveness of the organisation in which the personnel works;
• Hereditary competitive advantages (abilities, the physical data, temperament, etc.);
• Business qualities (the formation, special knowledge, skills, abilities);
• Intelligence, culture;
• Skill to communicate;
• Age, health.
Summing up we will notice that competitiveness of the organisation directly depends including on its human resources and management of them. The considered strategy of conducting competitive struggle lean against human resources, as the basic potential for their working out and realisation.
The personnel providing high level of competitiveness of the organisation, should cope according to the established approaches of strategic management of human resources. Therefore in the following chapter processes of realisation of strategic management by human resources will be considered.
Chapter 2. Strategic human resources management realization process
Human resources management (HRM) can be defined as a strategic and consecutive approach to management of the most valuable active of the enterprise: people working there who collectively and individually bring the contribution to the salvation of problems of the given enterprise.
The basic characteristics of human resources management are:
• HRM satisfies requirements for the strategic approach to management of human resources that allows to bring into accord among themselves the enterprise and its human resources strategy;
• In HRM systematic and logically consecutive approach to maintenance of mutual support of theoretical techniques and practice of labour employment, by means of development of the integrated theory and practice of human resources (a group configuration) is applied;
• In HRM importance of achievement of adherence of mission and the given organization is underlined – HRM «is focused on adherence»;
• In HRM workers are considered as an active, or the human capital, thanks to that training and development possibility of "the training organization» is provided;
• Human resources are considered as a source of competitive advantage, along with the concept of the strategy which are based on resources;
• The approach to the relation with the worker is unitary, but not pluralistic: it is considered that workers will divide interests of the employer even if they will not coincide with their own;
• Realization and development of HRM is a problem of heads of divisions39.
The main objective of human resources management is to provide achievement of success of the given organization by means of people. As D.Ulrih and D.Lejk marked, «HRM systems can become a source of such abilities of the organization which will allow it to learn how to use new possibilities for the benefit of the given firm»40. Being more accurate, HRM deals with achievement of the purposes in the following areas: selection of resources and their development, an estimation of employees, mutual relations.
2.1 The competence as a basis of the strategic approach to human resources management
Competence is a set of knowledge, skills and the personal qualities, which allow to solve a certain problem (or set of problems). The competence are described in the form of a set of requirements to knowledge, skills and qualities of the employee for functions, official position or role in the project. If professional skills, knowledge and personal qualities of the expert coincide with requirements to the competence for a certain post, or a target then corresponding work, under other favorable circumstances, can be carried out by such expert qualitatively and effectively41.
Qualification used as a synonym of competence means a degree of development of expert’s this or that competences (first of all - knowledge and skills). The higher qualification is, that is the more competent employee is, the faster and more qualitatively he performs his work within the limits of the competences42.
One of special features of many companies are increased requirements to a set of competences of leading employees. It is connected, first of all, with complexity of products (and-or services) which are created during the process of realization of projects. So the expert who is good in, for example, adjustment of any computer appendices or systems for clients of the company, is appreciated twice more if at the same time he has developed skills of business communication, is capable to train users, to work in a command and possesses so-called client oriented concept, i.e. respect a client and aspire to take into consideration his or her requirements. All skills and qualities shown in the example are separate competences, presence of which are not necessary but extremely desirable for an expert43.
Though it is seldom realized in practice every company aspires to minimize it’s costs, employing and keeping the possible minimum and the possible maximum of versatile experts (qualified jobs). In project organizations success of such approach (in particular in competences, connected with work with a client) is sometimes of a crucial importance44.
The higher complexity of a product created by the company or service, the more company depends on qualification of the key experts and efficiency of application of their cores competences. As an indicator of such dependence it is possible (with some amendments) to use an indicator of a share of expenses for payment of their work in the product or service cost price. So, in consulting companies this share aspires to 100 % (not including an overhead charge) 45.
At the same time there are companies which can be even more, than consulting, who also depend on their key experts whose share of cost in a unit of production is rather insignificant (for example, the aviabuilding enterprises and design offices) 46.
So the higher dependence is, the higher the need for experts who are keen in holding serious competences (for example as it is described in the example above) at high professional level, the higher volumes of indemnifications offered them are47.
The labour market concerning professionals of each concrete narrow specialization, at the same time, the worse conducts it’s duties is worse, the more specific business and projects of the companies-employers are. And this, in turn, is directly connected with a degree of complexity of products and services. So, for example, consulting projects in the field of organizational development are very difficult products. At stable and a growing demand for similar services, growth of the companies, who provide them, it is often limited by impossibility to get and keep enough of key experts with serious and often unique competences48.
Thus, the companies, the added cost of products and services which keep on highly skilled work, constantly combat wage wars for attraction and deduction of highly skilled experts on key positions (and not only administrative). Demand always exceeds the offer.
2.2 Instruments of strategic human resources management
2.2.1 Strategic Стратегический personnel selection
The ultimate goal of a process of selection of the personnel should impose with the minimum expenses to employ certain quantity of workers of a certain quality for satisfaction of requirements of the company in human resources. Procedure of selection of the personnel includes three stages:
1. Definition of requirements – preparation of duty regulations and lists of requirements for candidates; decision-making on employment conditions;
2. Attraction of candidates – review and estimation of internal and external sources of attraction of candidates, placing of announcements of a set, reference to agencies and advisers;
3. Selection of candidates – careful analysis of questionnaires, carrying out of interviews, testing, estimation of candidates, work of the estimated centre, offer on hiring, reception of recommendations; preparation of labour contract49.
What quantity and what categories of workers are required, it is necessary to define in the program of hiring which starts with the plan on human resources. Besides, there can be requirements for time workers or for new works which should be satisfied. These requirements should be supervised to guarantee that they are justified. Especially carefully it is necessary to check up requirement for time workers and to define level or type of demanded workers. Requirements to concrete posts are stated in the form of duty regulations and profiles of the person. They give the basic information, necessary to make the announcement of vacancy, to employ agency or advisers for selection of the personnel and to estimate candidates. The role profile in which requirements to competence are listed, to skills, formation and professional experience, sets working criteria on which candidates will estimate on interview or by means of psychological tests.
In duty regulations basic elements of working process are stated: submission, overall working aim, principal views on work or problems being solved and some other special requirements or characteristics. For hiring the information concerning actions for improvement of professional skill, development and possibilities of career growth can be given. Working conditions – wages, additional payments etc. – also join duty regulations act, as well as special requirements, for example: travelling, business trips or work during evening and night time. Скрыть
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