Надо быстро сделать дипломную работу по языкознанию и филологии. Есть буквально 7 дней. Тема работы «Система факультативных занятий по теме университеты Великобритании на уроках английского языка в средней школе.
Summing up the results оf оur research, we can say that оptiоnal cоurses оccupy an impоrtant placein the teaching оf a fоreign language.
They sоlve twо main prоblems: at first, the stimulatiоnоf interest, knоwledge, imprоving skills оn the subject, and at secоnd, students’ free time оrganizatiоn fоr their upbringing.
In the graduatiоn prоject we examined the main gоals and оbjectives оf the elective cоurses, their оrganizatiоn, their principles, as well as mоdern methоds and means.
In the end оf оur wоrk we want tо say that оptiоnalEnglishclasses are useful and efficientfоr:
- The develоpment оf cоgnitive skills in fоreign languages study;
- Develоpment оf creative thinking, imaginatiоn, fantasy;
- Develоpment оf persоnal activity ;
- Develоping lоgical skills;
- Develоping self-expressiоn
Показать все skills.
Extracurricular activities enable realizatiоn оf the fоllоwing tasks:
• creating speech culture andcоmmunicatiоn culture;
• brоadening their hоrizоns, оutlооk, attitude and perceptiоn оf the wоrld;
• bringing up the ability tо empathize;
• creating value оrientatiоns ;
• develоping оf creative abilities, imaginatiоn, memоry.
And extracurricular activities play an impоrtant rоle in mastering language skills, as cоmpulsоry schооl lessоns are nоt usually enоugh fоr gооd speaking, because during the basic cоurse teacher has nоt enоugh time tо pay attentiоntо every students individually.
Оptiоnal cоurse in a fоreign language has a great educatiоnal value. This wоrk deepens and brоadens the knоwledge оf a fоreign language, and alsо cоntributes tо the expansiоn оf pupils’ cultural hоrizоns, develоp their creativity, aesthetic taste, and as a result, increases the mоtivatiоn tо learn the language and tо knоw the culture оf anоther cоuntry.
The main advantages оf an оptiоnal cоurse are:
1. Vоluntary participatiоn оf students in elective cоurses as оppоsed tооbligatоry schооl activities.
Students make up the decisiоn themselves abоut participatiоn in sоmeоptiоnal cоurses, primarily in accоrdance with their interests, desires tо learn sоmething new, tо dо with sоme additiоnal language gоals.
A teacher shоuld detect students’ interest in elective cоurses and in language tо engage them in оut-оf-schооl activities and stimulate interest in it.
This principle determines the cоntent and fоrm оf an оptiоnal cоurse - it must cоntinuоusly maintain, deepen and develоp interest in a fоreign language.
2. Students have greater autоnоmy and independence in extracurricular wоrk. Оppоsed tоschооlwоrk, where the teacher playsthe leading part, inоptiоnal cоurses students have mоre independence and creativity, bоth in perfоrmance and in оrganizatiоn, in the chоice оf fоrms оf wоrk.
It is very impоrtant that the students wоuld make full use оf these skills during the оptiоnal cоurse. Elective cоurse prоvides a pоsitive effect fоr learning activities оf students in a fоreign language.
Оptiоnal cоurse will help develоp and deepen students' interest in a fоreign language, imprоve their practical skills in it, expanding cultural hоrizоns and educatiоnal level.
Teacher’ creativity, his pedagоgical skills, enthusiasm, activity and students' interest make Englishоptiоnal classes an efficient type оf wоrk. Much depends оn the teacher, his skills and abilities tооrganize wоrk and find an apprоach tо every student.
Оptiоnal cоurse will be an impоrtant element in schооlchildren’s educatiоn in cоnditiоn оf fоllоwing all these principles and cоnditiоns.
We believe that we have prоved оur main оbjective–the usefulness оf an оptiоnal English cоurse in cоuntry study.Скрыть
1. The role of extracurricular activity and optional classes in foreign language study.
2. Analysis of the content of school textbooks about country study in general and about UK universities in particular
3. Picking up additional material for a more detailed study of the topic
4. Working-out of optional classes on the subject “UK universities”
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6. Нефедова М.А., Лотарева Т.В. Страноведческий материал и познавательная активность учащихся. // Иностранные языки в школе. № 6, 1997.
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18. Чистякова С.Н., Лернер П.С. и др. Элективные ориентационные курсы и другие средства профильной ориентации в предпрофильной подготовке школьников. – М.: Алмаз, 2004. – 145 с.Скрыть
The University of London, for instance, includes internal and external students, the latter coming to London only to sit for their examinations. Actually most external students at London University are living in London. The colleges in the University of London are essentially teaching institutions, providing instruction chiefly by means of lectures, which are attended mainly by day students. The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, however, are essentially residential institutions and they mainly use a tutorial method which brings the tutor into close and personal contact with the student. These colleges, being residential, are necessarily far smaller than most of the colleges of the University of London.Education of University standard is also given in other institutions such as colleges of
Показать всеtechnology and agricultural colleges, which prepare their students for degrees or diplomas in their own fields.The three terms into which the British University year is divided are roughly eight to ten weeks. Each term is crowded with activity, and the vacations between the terms - a month at Christmas, a .month at Easter, and three or four months in summer - are mainly periods of intellectual digestion and private study.A person studying for a degree at a British University is called a graduate.B. A. or B. Sc. stands for Bachelor of Arts or of Science, the first degree. M. A. or M. Sc. denotes Master of Arts or of Science. One can become a B. A. alter three years of hard study and an M. A. at the end of five years.Ex. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence 1. Jack decided to take a course / lesson in hotel management. 2. Sheila always got good marks / points in algebra. 3. After leaving school, Ann studied / trained as a teacher. 4. Peter decided not to go in / enter for the examination. 5. My sister learned / taught me how to draw.6. I can't come to the cinema. I have to read / study for a test. 7. In history we had to learn a lot of dates by hand / heart. 8. I hope your work will improve by the end of course / term. 9. Martin failed / missed his maths exam and had to sit it again. 10. If you have any questions, raise / rise your hand. Ex. Listening. Listen to the text and do the following tasks:HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAINNowadays teacher training in Great Britain is realized at universities, polytechnics and colleges of higher education.Students working for their first degree at university are called undergraduates. When they take their degree we say that they graduate and then they are called graduates. If they continue studying at university doing research work after they have graduated, they are called post-graduates.In general, the first degree of Bachelor is given to students who pass examinations at the end of three or four years of study. Of the three universities are considered more prestigious and beneficial. Their graduates have better chances of getting a job.Polytechnics are usually formed on the basis of art colleges and colleges of technology. They combine science and technology, the arts, social studies management and business studies, law and other subjects.From the 1st August 1975 the system of teacher training in England is being reorganized. All higher and further education outside the universities including teacher training is being assimilated into a common system. A number of the existing colleges of education are to be merged either with each other or with other institutions of further education (polytechnics and others}.Further study or research is required at the modern universities for the first post-graduate degree of Master, and at all British universities for that of Doctor.In Britain full-time university students (students who spend all their lime studying and have no other employment), have three terms of about ten weeks in each year. University teaching combines lectures given by professors, readers or lecturers, 4 practical classes (hi scientific subjects) and small group teaching in seminars or tutorials. The course of study for intending teachers is based upon compulsory and optional subjects. The Programme usually consists of three core components: School-based experience, Subject studies and Education studies. Theory of Education is one of the main subjects. At the end of the first or second year students are to make their choice as to the age-range of children they wish to prepare to teach. Junior students go into schools for one day each week, watching experienced teachers at work. They take part in the life of the school, help with games, societies or play productions. Senior students spend fifteen weeks on teaching practice. They learn the use of different educational aids, audio-visual facilities, observe lessons and take an active part in discussing them with a supervisor (tutor) on school practice. Examination are held at the end of each term. Final examination (or finals) are taken at the end of the course.Ex. Say if it is true or false: The system of teacher training in England is being reorganized in 1985.The Programme usually consists of three core components.Part-time university students (students who spend all their lime studying and have no other employmentJunior students go into schools for two days each week.Senior students spend fifteen weeks on teaching practice.Lesson 7. Academic DegreesImportant ConceptsImportant Vocabularyfoundation degree (079)bachelor’s degree (036)undergraduate master's degreemaster’s degree (037)doctorate / Ph.D. (038)Oxbridge Master of ArtsScottish Master of ArtsIrish Ortelius Levelsundergraduate (004)postgraduate (005)honors system (086)pass degreemark (087)HETAC (085)to apply toto depend onto verifyto achieveto attainto obtainto acquireto awardto attend classesto pass an examto confer a degreeto award honorsa degree granting institutionfree of charge Learn the vocabulary paying attention to explanatory notes, Further education – дальнейшее образование, дневное и вечернее, иногда с освобождением от работы. Платное. Основная цель – повышение квалификации. Возраст не ограничен. Full-time – c отрывом от производства part-time – без отрыва от производства Sandwich courses – курсы (в основном при техническом колледже), где занятия чередуются с работой на производстве Block release courses – занятия с отрывом от производства на определенный срок An honours degree – диплом с отличием Bachelor's degree – диплом об окончании вуза в России Bachelor of Arts / B.A. (BA) – бакалавр искусств (по одной из гуманитарных или математических наук в университете). Ставится после фамилии. Bachelor of Science / B.Sc. (BSc) – обладатель первой ученой степени (first degree) в университетах. В Оксфорде – котируется выше (higher degree). Master's degrees: Master of Arts / M.A. (MA) – магистр искусств, обладатель второй ученой степени (higher degree). Выпускникам Оксбриджа присваивается без экзамена на основании определенных сроков практической работы после окончания; от других требуется написание работы на основе проведенных исследований. Наблюдается тенденция присвоения после года практической работы. Master of Science / M.S(c). (MSc) – магистр естественных наукMaster of Philosophy / M.Phil. (MPhil) – магистр философии (относится и к др. наукам). Присуждается за научную работу, частично содержащую материал, разработанный автором. Doctor of Philosophy / Ph.D. (PhD) – доктор философии. Требуется написание самостоятельной работы на основе трехлетних (или более) исследований. Lecturer / instructor (Am.) – преподаватель высшей школыTutor – преподаватель, ведущий практические занятия и воспитательную работу с определенной группой студентовRead the text and do the tasks that follow. Pay attention to abbreviations you come across in the text and their meaning. Do you think British university degrees in any way correspond to Russian degrees? University degreesTypes of university degrees In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the most usual titles for a first degree are Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BSc) and those for a second degree – Master of Arts (MA), Master of Sci- ence (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). After a course of studies lasting from three to four years which must be pursued at one and the same university the undergraduate student sits for a final examination which, if he passes it, entitles him to a first degree. The present three- year degree course in Britain is one of the shortest in the world (it’s 4 in Scotland and many subjects take more than 3 years in England too, eg. modern languages). The present first-degree system varies both in length and nomenclature. First-degree courses in Arts and Science are of two main kinds: those which allow the student to spread his/her studies over a wider field but less intensively and degrees in which the student specializes in a specific field and studies it in depth. Universities use different names to describe the degrees to which these two types of course lead. The degree obtained at the end of a specialized course in a single subject is usually called a degree with honours, although in some universities it may be called a Special degree. After taking a first degree those graduates who are interested in research work follow postgraduate or advanced studies. Postgraduate studies lead to higher degrees most of which are Master’s or Doctor’s degrees. Postgraduate students are granted the Master’s degree by the- sis or examination after a minimum of one or two years of advanced studies. The Doctorate (Doctoral /Doctor’s degree) generally requires outstanding proficiency in some specialized branch of research. It is regarded as the highest degree. Master’s Degree All universities in the United Kingdom provide courses beyond first degree level leading to postgraduate awards. They lead to a degree at master’s or doctoral level, or to diploma or certificate. Applications for postgraduate courses are welcome from stu- dents with a first degree in an appropriate subject. The type and quality of Master’s courses available vary considerably. The title of the Master’s degree is usually determined by the subject studied. MA – Master of Arts MSc – Master of Science MEng – Master of Engineering MTech – Master of Technology MBA – Master of Business Administration There are no grades of master’s degrees although some universities may award a distinction for outstanding performance. Academic year. Traditionally, the UK academic year runs from September or October to June, divided into 3 terms of eight to ten weeks, with four weeks’ vacation at Christmas and Easter and three months’ vacation in the summer. Postgraduate students, however are frequently expected to work through vacations – indeed, the bulk of the project for a taught master’s course will take place in the summer vacation. Lectures and seminars .For taught courses, lectures and seminars provide the basis of study at various classes between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. Although lecture audiences can be very large – (perhaps over a hundred students) – there is usually an opportunity to ask questions. Seminars and tutorials provide more opportunity for discussion in smaller groups. The size of a seminar group may vary considerably. Some universities retain a tradition of one- to-one work, while others rarely have groups smaller than 20. Coursework and exams. Students are sometimes asked to write essays which are then dis- cussed in the group – this is a good opportunity to develop your skills in presentation and discussion. This work is supported by reading andindividual study. Thus, the graduate takes 6 months to become expert in a subject before sitting examinations. His work is evaluated by continuous assessment or through several written examinations, or a mixture of the two. Coursework assessment may merely monitor your progress or may form an important part of the final test, as in the case of a taught master’s project where students are required to produce a substantial dissertation. Written examinations usually form an important part of the assessment of taught courses. The ‘taught part’ of the course is then followed by four to six month’s private research or project work on a special topic, that has to be written up as an extended essay, short thesis or dissertation. The candidate (that is, the person, applying for the degree) submits his thesis to an examining board, appointed by the board of studies (a committee of professors and lecturers, of which there is one for each subject). The examining board usually consists of 2 or 3 specialists in the candidate’s field. They read the thesis and then summon the candidate to an oral examination, sometimes called a viva (from Latin viva voce). At the oral viva the candidate is questioned on his/her thesis and sometimes on related topics. After the oral examination the examiners come to a joint decision and either accept or reject the thesis. The place of the traditional MA, awarded on acceptance of a thesis, has been taken over in some universities by a new Master’s degree (the Master of Philosophy, or the MPhil), obtained by research. The MPhil may be in science, engineering, medicine, art or social studies. MPhil is a qualification in its own right; if a student proves he/she has the ability and motivation to do research, it can lead to a doctorate. The UK office of Science and Technology is currently piloting a new research master’s degree, an MRes (Master of Research). This is designed to prepare students for a doctorate. It may eventually become the normal starting point for a PhD but it is not mandatory.Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE): The Postgraduate Certificate in Education is also known as Postgraduate Diploma in Education and can be acquired by doing an additional one year course after obtaining undergraduate degree. The additional one year course is offered free of charge. Even though the courses are taught at institution of higher education, they mostly consist of practical work at local schools. After completing the course, the student has reached the Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). The PGCE is considered to be equivalent to a postgraduate diploma, that is merely the teaching element of a regular M.A. The PGCE, therefore is often referred to as a "non-degree", but it is a valid academic qualification.Ex. Match each word from the list with a suitable description. Use each name once only Class classmate examiner learner principal pupil coach graduate lecturer professor tutor 1. Someone who teaches at a university. ............... 2. Someone who has a college degree................ 3. The head of a school................ 4. Someone who studies at primary or secondary school........... 5. The most important teacher in a university department......... 6. Someone who teaches one student or a very small class.......... 7. Someone in the same class as yourself................ 8. Someone who trains a sports team................ 9. Someone who writes the question papers of an examination….. 10. Someone who drives but has not yet passed a driving test........Ex. Suggest the Russian for the following word-combinations A course of studies, to sit for a final examination, specialized courses, single-subject degrees, general degrees to qualify for post- graduate study, to be interested in research work, to lead to a higher degree, advanced studies, schools of studies, the award of certificates or diplomas. Ex. Complete the sentences below with information from the text 1. The requirements for an MA or PhD degree usually include the preparation of _____. 2. An examiner who is invited from another university in order to be present at the final examination and to ensure objectivity is called _____. 3. The post held by a professor is called ______. 4. A college or university providing accommodation for its members is called _____. 5. A student who has already obtained a first degree and is studying for a higher degree is called ______. 6. The examination held at the end of a three- or four-year uni- versity or college degree is called ______.7. A degree higher than the Master’s degree is called ______. 8. The most famous doctorate in the UK is ______. 9. A researcher in higher education is usually called ______. Ex. Work in pairs. In turn ask and answer questions on the text Ex. Write a summary of the text (maximum 15 sentences). With your part-ner practice interpreting it Learn the abbreviations:Bachelor DegreeB.A. - Bachelor of ArtsBASc/BAS - Bachelor of Applied ScienceB.Sc. - Bachelor of ScienceBScEcon - Bachelor of Economic and Social ScienceBFA - Bachelor of Fine ArtB.Tech. - Bachelor of Technology (not to be confused with BTEC)BTh, ThB or BTheol - Bachelor of TheologyBD - Bachelor of DivinityBMin - Bachelor of MinistryBScEng - Bachelor of Science in EngineeringBCL - Bachelor of Civil LawLLB - Bachelor of LawsBLitt or LittB- Bachelor of Literature or Bachelor of LettersBChir, BCh, ChB or BS - Bachelor of SurgeryBDS or BChD - Bachelor of Dental SurgeryMB or BM - Bachelor of MedicineBNurs or BN -Bachelor of NursingBMid - Bachelor of MidwiferyBEd or EdB - Bachelor of EducationBEng or BE - Bachelor of EngineeringBPhil - Bachelor of PhilosophyBMus or MusB -Bachelor of MusicBMedSc or BMSc - Bachelor of Biomedical scienceMaster's DegreeMA - Master of ArtsMSc - Master of ScienceLLM - Master of LawsMJur - Master of Jurisprudence (Law) (Magister Juris at Oxford)MRes - Master of ResearchMEd - Master of EducationMLib - Master of LibrarianshipMSt - Master of StudiesMus or MusM- Master of MusicMBA - Master of Business AdministrationMClinDent - Master of Clinical DentistryMeB - Master of Electronic Business (eBusiness)MTh or MTheol- Master of TheologyMLitt - Master of LettersMFA - Master of Fine ArtMPH - Master of Public HealthMDrama - Master of DramaMUniv - Master of the UniversityMPhil - Master of PhilosophyMSSc - Master of Social ScienceMBiolSci - Master of Biological ScienceJunior DoctorsEdD - Doctor of EducationDBA - Doctor of Business AdministrationDProf - Doctor of Professional StudiesDClinPsych - Doctor of Clinical PsychologyEdPsychD - Doctor of Educational PsychologyDNursSci - Doctor of Nursing ScienceHScD - Doctor of Health ScienceEngD - Engineering DoctorateSocSciD - Doctor of Social ScienceDMin - Doctor of MinistryTh.D. - Doctor of TheologyMD or DM - Doctor of MedicinePh.D. - Doctor of Philosophy(most universities)D.Phil. - Doctor of Philosophy(Oxford University and a few others)Higher DoctorsDSc or ScD - Doctor of ScienceDLit - Doctor of LiteratureDLitt or LittD - Doctor of LettersDMus or MusD - Doctor of MusicDCL - Doctor of Civil LawLLD - Doctor of LawsDD - Doctor of DivinityDDS - Doctor of Dental SurgeryDUniv - Doctor of the UniversityLesson 8. Student FeesImportant ConceptsImportant Vocabularyfees Local Education Authorities (LEAs) means testing top-up feesloan grant scholarshipbenefits course (BrE) undergraduate postgraduate graduation to ask someone to pay …to assessto be eligibleto take into considerationto be entitled toto apply tomandatory lecturesto chargeinstallmentthe cost of livingRead the text and give the summary.Fees for undergraduatesThe current situation is that British students can be asked to pay a maximum amount of £1,250, approximately €1,800, per year (one British Pound is worth about 1.5 Euros). The exact amount is assessed individually for every student through means testing, that is a procedure conducted by the Local Education Authorities (LEAs). Usually the parents' assets are taken into consideration as well.Generally students only pay a portion of their tuition fees, while the rest is paid for by the British state and its (LEAs). Since the 1980s, the sums paid to institutions of higher education have been linked to their performance and effectively. Скрыть
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