Надо быстро сделать дипломную работу по языкознанию и филологии. Есть буквально 7 дней. Тема работы «Система факультативных занятий по теме университеты Великобритании на уроках английского языка в средней школе.
Summing up the results оf оur research, we can say that оptiоnal cоurses оccupy an impоrtant placein the teaching оf a fоreign language.
They sоlve twо main prоblems: at first, the stimulatiоnоf interest, knоwledge, imprоving skills оn the subject, and at secоnd, students’ free time оrganizatiоn fоr their upbringing.
In the graduatiоn prоject we examined the main gоals and оbjectives оf the elective cоurses, their оrganizatiоn, their principles, as well as mоdern methоds and means.
In the end оf оur wоrk we want tо say that оptiоnalEnglishclasses are useful and efficientfоr:
- The develоpment оf cоgnitive skills in fоreign languages study;
- Develоpment оf creative thinking, imaginatiоn, fantasy;
- Develоpment оf persоnal activity ;
- Develоping lоgical skills;
- Develоping self-expressiоn
Показать все skills.
Extracurricular activities enable realizatiоn оf the fоllоwing tasks:
• creating speech culture andcоmmunicatiоn culture;
• brоadening their hоrizоns, оutlооk, attitude and perceptiоn оf the wоrld;
• bringing up the ability tо empathize;
• creating value оrientatiоns ;
• develоping оf creative abilities, imaginatiоn, memоry.
And extracurricular activities play an impоrtant rоle in mastering language skills, as cоmpulsоry schооl lessоns are nоt usually enоugh fоr gооd speaking, because during the basic cоurse teacher has nоt enоugh time tо pay attentiоntо every students individually.
Оptiоnal cоurse in a fоreign language has a great educatiоnal value. This wоrk deepens and brоadens the knоwledge оf a fоreign language, and alsо cоntributes tо the expansiоn оf pupils’ cultural hоrizоns, develоp their creativity, aesthetic taste, and as a result, increases the mоtivatiоn tо learn the language and tо knоw the culture оf anоther cоuntry.
The main advantages оf an оptiоnal cоurse are:
1. Vоluntary participatiоn оf students in elective cоurses as оppоsed tооbligatоry schооl activities.
Students make up the decisiоn themselves abоut participatiоn in sоmeоptiоnal cоurses, primarily in accоrdance with their interests, desires tо learn sоmething new, tо dо with sоme additiоnal language gоals.
A teacher shоuld detect students’ interest in elective cоurses and in language tо engage them in оut-оf-schооl activities and stimulate interest in it.
This principle determines the cоntent and fоrm оf an оptiоnal cоurse - it must cоntinuоusly maintain, deepen and develоp interest in a fоreign language.
2. Students have greater autоnоmy and independence in extracurricular wоrk. Оppоsed tоschооlwоrk, where the teacher playsthe leading part, inоptiоnal cоurses students have mоre independence and creativity, bоth in perfоrmance and in оrganizatiоn, in the chоice оf fоrms оf wоrk.
It is very impоrtant that the students wоuld make full use оf these skills during the оptiоnal cоurse. Elective cоurse prоvides a pоsitive effect fоr learning activities оf students in a fоreign language.
Оptiоnal cоurse will help develоp and deepen students' interest in a fоreign language, imprоve their practical skills in it, expanding cultural hоrizоns and educatiоnal level.
Teacher’ creativity, his pedagоgical skills, enthusiasm, activity and students' interest make Englishоptiоnal classes an efficient type оf wоrk. Much depends оn the teacher, his skills and abilities tооrganize wоrk and find an apprоach tо every student.
Оptiоnal cоurse will be an impоrtant element in schооlchildren’s educatiоn in cоnditiоn оf fоllоwing all these principles and cоnditiоns.
We believe that we have prоved оur main оbjective–the usefulness оf an оptiоnal English cоurse in cоuntry study.Скрыть
1. The role of extracurricular activity and optional classes in foreign language study.
2. Analysis of the content of school textbooks about country study in general and about UK universities in particular
3. Picking up additional material for a more detailed study of the topic
4. Working-out of optional classes on the subject “UK universities”
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12. Рогова Г.В., Рабинович Ф.М., Сахарова Т.Е. Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе.– М.: Просвещение, 2004. – 418 с.
13. Ушаков Н.Н. Кружковая работа по изучению иностранного языка. – М.: Просвещение, 1979. – 371 с.
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18. Чистякова С.Н., Лернер П.С. и др. Элективные ориентационные курсы и другие средства профильной ориентации в предпрофильной подготовке школьников. – М.: Алмаз, 2004. – 145 с.Скрыть
HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAINImportant ConceptsImportant Vocabularyancient universities Red Brick Universities / Red Bricks / civic universities New UniversitiesPlate Glass Universities Post-1992 UniversitiesOpen University college Oxbridge Ivy League fees undergraduate postgraduate minor major league tables to provide informationto refer toit must be noted thatto engage in researchto award degreesfield of studydue toreputable / reputationto improve one’s reputationBritish UniversitiesIn Great Britain, new universities are founded by Act of Parliament or Royal Charter. In addition, for an institution to be allowed to award degrees, it must be recognized by the Privy Council, an advisory body to the British Head of State (i.e. the monarch).One of the main differenc
Показать всеes between the British and the American University system is that all of Britain's universities except for the University of Buckingham, are financed by the State. In America on the other hand there are just about as many public as private institutions of higher education. The British is therefore much more similar to the German university system than the American. Yet the important fact to consider about British academic institutions is that even though they are financed by the British government, no university is actually owned by the State and in spite of the state's sponsoring of universities, fees at British university are considerably higher than they are going to be at German institutions. As opposed to the American and German system, students in the United Kingdom generally study only one subject instead of a combination of minor and master.One particularity of universities in UK is that most students choose to attend institutions far away from their hometowns. Consequently most universities provide accommodation for their students or at least help them find a place to live.Four Main TypesThere are four main types of British Universities.1. Ancient UniversitiesAncient universities in the United Kingdom and Ireland were founded during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Since no universities were founded in the United Kingdom and Ireland between the 16th and 19th century, the term "ancient university" generally refers to institutions of higher education that were established before the 19th century.The ancient universities (in order of formation) are:University of Oxford - founded before 1167 (England)University of Cambridge - founded 1209 (England)University of St Andrews - founded 1413 (Scotland)University of Glasgow - founded 1451 (Scotland)University of Aberdeen - founded 1495 (Scotland)University of Edinburgh - founded 1583 (Scotland)University of Dublin - founded 1592 (Ireland; only ancient university outside the UK)Due to their sheer age and continuous academic and scientific output, all of the ancient universities are very reputable. The two top universities in UK, which are continuously found in first and second place of the British league tables, are Oxford and Cambridge. Together they are known as Oxbridge and share a century old rivalry, which dates back to when Cambridge was founded by dissident Oxford scholars.Oxbridge is often compared to the American Ivy League universities, but it is important to note that all Ivy League institutions are private universities, while Oxford and Cambridge are state-owned.Both universities are divided into more than thirty colleges. Since each college at Oxford only offers a certain range of subjects, the choice of college often depends on the field of study. At Cambridge, on the other hand, all colleges give students to opportunity to study any subject offered by the university as a whole.Yet in spite of the differences and rivalries, there is also much cooperation between Britain's two oldest academic institutions. Most Oxford colleges have a sister college in Cambridge. Some colleges even share a common name, but are not necessarily sister colleges. There is for instance a Trinity College at Oxford (sister college: Churchill College, Cambridge) as well as a Trinity College at Cambridge (sister college: Christ Church, Oxford).2. Red Brick UniversitiesRed Brick Universities - named after the buildings they were housed in which were usually built with red brick - were founded in the industrial parts of the cities during the Victorian era (1837-1901) and before the Second World War. They are sometimes also called "civic universities", a movement that started in 1851 with Owens College, which later became the Victoria University of Manchester and today is called University of Manchester.The main difference between Red Brick and ancient universities is that Red Bricks were so called non-collegiate institutions and admitted men without regarding their religion or social background. Furthermore they concentrated on teaching predominantly "practical subjects" often linked to engineering.Some Red Brick universities include:University of BirminghamUniversity of BristolUniversity of LeedsUniversity of LiverpoolUniversity of ManchesterUniversity of Sheffield3. New UniversitiesTwo types of universities are named under the term "New Universities". First of all the academic institutions founded in the 1960s after the Robins Report. Besides recommending immediate expansion of universities, the Report also suggested elevating Colleges of Advanced Technology to university status.Due to their modern architecture and the use of large stretches of plate glass in steel or concrete frames, the institutions founded in the 1960s are often called "Plate Glass Universities". Some Plate glass universities such as York and Warwick have by now out-performed some Red Brick universities, especially on the field of research, which has improved their reputation considerably.Here is a list of Plate Glass Universities with links to each institution:Aston UniversityBrunel UniversityUniversity of BathUniversity of BradfordUniversity of EssexHeriot-Watt UniversityUniversity of KentUniversity of KeeleUniversity of LancasterLoughborough UniversityUniversity of SalfordUniversity of StirlingUniversity of SussexUniversity of WarwickNew University of UlsterUniversity of YorkThe second group are the so called Post-1992 Universities. The term refers to former polytechnics that were given university status by John Major's government in 1992. They have the poorest reputation among British universities, and many of them regularly appear in bottom Tenth of league tables.Here is a list of post-1992 universities with links to each institution:Abertay UniversityAnglia Ruskin UniversityUniversity of BrightonBournemouth UniversityUniversity of Central England4. Open UniversityFounded in 1986, the Open University is Britain's single distance-learning institution. In 2005 a total of 180,000 students, most of them based in the UK, were enrolled, which made it the largest institution of higher education in the UK by student numbers.The Open University was rated top university in England and Wales for student satisfaction in 2005 and the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education rated teaching at the Open University as excellent that same year. Just as any other academic institution, the Open University, too, actively engages in research and awards both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.Its administration is based at Walton Hall, Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, but there are additional offices in 13 regions around the UK.Ex. Make up dialogue about University using the following words:Name, family, students, home town, father, mother, sister, brother, to study, to work, to enter, to be found of, to have, grandmother, grandfather, relatives, department, faculty, lecture hall, to equip, research, carry out experiment, scientific society, mark, to take an examination, to take a test, to pass an examination, to fail in an examination, to enter the University, to graduate from the University, to work hard.Discuss the following topics:Do the elite in your country attend one or two universities? Do elite universities help or harm your country? Do children have a right to an education? Should education be free? Does your country provide a good public school system? Lesson 5. Oxbridge.Vocabulary list1.prestigious – престижный2. to denote – означать3. collectively – совместно4. afford – позволить5. tutorial – консультация6. ceremony – церемония, торжество7. offer – предложение8. range – ряд9. chapel – часовня10. to mention – упоминать11. charter – устав, чартер, нанимать12. overseas – за границейOxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge. Both universities axe independent. Only the education elite go to Oxford or Cambridge. Most of their students are former public schools leavers.The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B. A.). Some courses, such as languages or medicine, may be one or two years longer. The students may work for other degrees as well. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies. Oxford and Cambridge cling to their traditions, such as the use of Latin it degree ceremonies. Full academic dress is worn at examinations.Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms. Each college is governed by a Master. The larger ones have more than 400 members; the smallest colleges have less than 30. Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects. Within the college one will normally find a chapel, a dining hall, a library, rooms for undergraduates, fellows and the Master, and rooms for teaching purposes.Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It is the second largest in Britain, after London. The town of Oxford is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle in 911 A. D., and it was popular with the early English kings. The university's earliest charter is dated to 1213.There are now 24 colleges for men, 5 for women and another 5 which have both men and women members, many from overseas studying for higher degrees. Among the oldest colleges are University College, All Souls and Christ Church.The local car industry in East Oxford gives an important addition to the city's outlook. There is a great deal of bicycle traffic both in Oxford and in Cambridge.Cambridge University started during the 13th century and grew until today. Now there are more than thirty colleges.On the banks of the Cam willow trees drown their branches into the water. The colleges line the right bank. There are beautiful college gardens with green lawns and lines of tall trees. The oldest college is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284, and the most recent is Robinson College, which, was opened in 1977. The most famous is probably King’s College because of its magnificent chapel, the largest and the most beautiful building in Cambridge and the most perfect example left of English fifteenth-century architecture. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known.The University was only for men until 1871, when the first women's college was opened. In the 1970s, most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. Almost all colleges are now mixed.Many great men studied at Cambridge, among them Desiderius Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, Roger Bacon, the philosopher, Milton, the poet, Oliver Cromwell, the soldier, Newton, the scientist, and Kapitza, the famous Russian physicist.The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine. Sport is part of students' life at Oxbridge. The most popular sports are rowing and punting.Ex. Give English equivalents to the Russian words and phrases1. самые престижные университеты2. независимый3. каждый колледж4. самый старый университет в Европе5. второй по величине6. общества и клубы7. часть жизни студентовEx. Make up Sentences1. Often, to be called, they, Oxbridge, collectively.2. Independent, both, universities, to be.3. Mostly, former they, to be, leaves, school, public.4. Some may, to be, courses, one two, or, longer, years.5. Oxford, one, the, of, to be, universities, oldest, Europe, in.6. There are, now, than, more, colleges, thirty.Ex. Speak abouta) Oxford University;b) Cambridge University. Ex. Continue the dialogue:- Hello, Mike. Haven’t seen you for ages. How are you?- Fine, thanks. I passed entrance exams to the Technical University…Ex. Put the phrases in the dialogue in right orderWhat are the pre – schools consist of?- Specialized, polytechnical, musical, art and others, gymnasiums and colleges.- They consist of kindergartens and crèches.- When do people begin to go to school?- At the age of six or seven.- Today we are going to speak about education in Russia. Do you know what kind of education is in Russia?- How long is the term of study in a general secondary school?- Compulsory.- Can you name the main types of schools in Russia?- 11 years and consist of primary, middle and upper stages.Lesson 6. Teacher training in Great Britain. Some Aspects of British University LifeRead the text and give the summaryOf the full-time students now attending English Universities three quarters are men and one-quarter women. Nearly half of them are engaged in the study of arts subjects such as history, languages, economics or law, the others are studying pure or applied sciences such as medicine, dentistry, technology, or agriculture.The University of London, for instance, includes internal and external students, the latter coming to London only to sit for their examinations. Actually most external students at London University are living in London. The colleges in the University of London are essentially teaching institutions, providing instruction chiefly by means of lectures, which are attended mainly by day students. The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, however, are essentially residential institutions and they mainly use a tutorial method which brings the tutor into close and personal contact with the student. These colleges, being residential, are necessarily far smaller than most of the colleges of the University of London.Education of University standard is also given in other institutions such as colleges of technology and agricultural colleges, which prepare their students for degrees or diplomas in their own fields.The three terms into which the British University year is divided are roughly eight to ten weeks. Each term is crowded with activity, and the vacations between the terms - a month at Christmas, a .month at Easter, and three or four months in summer - are mainly periods of intellectual digestion and private study.A person studying for a degree at a British University is called a graduate.B. A. or B. Sc. stands for Bachelor of Arts or of Science, the first degree. M. A. or M. Sc. denotes Master of Arts or of Science. One can become a B. A. alter three years of hard study and an M. A. at the end of five years.Ex. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence 1. Jack decided to take a course / lesson in hotel management. 2. Sheila always got good marks / points in algebra. 3. After leaving school, Ann studied / trained as a teacher. 4. Peter decided not to go in / enter for the examination. 5. My sister learned / taught me how to draw.6. I can't come to the cinema. I have to read / study for a test. 7. In history we had to learn a lot of dates by hand / heart. 8. I hope your work will improve by the end of course / term. 9. Martin failed / missed his maths exam and had to sit it again. 10. If you have any questions, raise / rise your hand. Ex. Listening. Listen to the text and do the following tasks:HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAINNowadays teacher training in Great Britain is realized at universities, polytechnics and colleges of higher education.Students working for their first degree at university are called undergraduates. When they take their degree we say that they graduate and then they are called graduates. If they continue studying at university doing research work after they have graduated, they are called post-graduates.In general, the first degree of Bachelor is given to students who pass examinations at the end of three or four years of study. Of the three universities are considered more prestigious and beneficial. Their graduates have better chances of getting a job.Polytechnics are usually formed on the basis of art colleges and colleges of technology. They combine science and technology, the arts, social studies management and business studies, law and other subjects.From the 1st August 1975 the system of teacher training in England is being reorganized. All higher and further education outside the universities including teacher training is being assimilated into a common system. A number of the existing colleges of education are to be merged either with each other or with other institutions of further education (polytechnics and others}.Further study or research is required at the modern universities for the first post-graduate degree of Master, and at all British universities for that of Doctor.In Britain full-time university students (students who spend all their lime studying and have no other employment), have three terms of about ten weeks in each year. University teaching combines lectures given by professors, readers or lecturers, 4 practical classes (hi scientific subjects) and small group teaching in seminars or tutorials. The course of study for intending teachers is based upon compulsory and optional subjects. The Programme usually consists of three core components: School-based experience, Subject studies and Education studies. Theory of Education is one of the main subjects. At the end of the first or second year students are to make their choice as to the age-range of children they wish to prepare to teach. Junior students go into schools for one day each week, watching experienced teachers at work. They take part in the life of the school, help with games, societies or play productions. Senior students spend fifteen weeks on teaching practice. They learn the use of different educational aids, audio-visual facilities, observe lessons and take an active part in discussing them with a supervisor (tutor) on school practice. Examination are held at the end of each term. Final examination (or finals) are taken at the end of the course.Ex. Say if it is true or false: The system of teacher training in England is being reorganized in 1985.The Programme usually consists of three core components.Part-time university students (students who spend all their lime studying and have no other employmentJunior students go into schools for two days each week.Senior students spend fifteen weeks on teaching practice.Lesson 7. Academic DegreesImportant ConceptsImportant Vocabularyfoundation degree (079)bachelor’s degree (036)undergraduate master's degreemaster’s degree (037)doctorate / Ph.D. (038)Oxbridge Master of ArtsScottish Master of ArtsIrish Ortelius Levelsundergraduate (004)postgraduate (005)honors system (086)pass degreemark (087)HETAC (085)to apply toto depend onto verifyto achieveto attainto obtainto acquireto awardto attend classesto pass an examto confer a degreeto award honorsa degree granting institutionfree of charge Learn the vocabulary paying attention to explanatory notes, Further education – дальнейшее образование, дневное и вечернее, иногда с освобождением от работы. Платное. Основная цель – повышение квалификации. Возраст не ограничен. Скрыть
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