Проблема по языкознанию и филологии. Срочно закажу дипломную работу по языкознанию и филологии. Есть буквально 7 дней. Тема работы «Лингво-культурологические особенности в переводе рекламного дискурса на основе трех языков: Русский, английский, французский.
According to the goal of our research, one can conclude the following.
In the course of interaction between cultures it becomes necessary to adapt ideas and images of one culture to the other, especially when it comes to advertisement.
Advertisement plays a very prominent role in modern culture, because it reflects modern way of life, stereotypes and modern culture.
When goods and services begin to be sold in different countries, they need to be promoted, so it is necessary not only to export goods and services, but to advertise them in the new county in terms that can be understood by the new customers.
Advertising must be memorable or it will not carry out its functions. Advertisement has several goals, and every goal must be achieved both in original advertising text and
Показать всеits translation. First, advertisement introduces goods to the customers, especially to the target audience. This introduction must be clear, the function of these goods should be obvious. Next, this advertisement should persuade the customer to buy this exact goods, not the same goods but of another trademark. And here lies the difficulty.
We can notice several kinds of intercultural adaptation of stereotypes in advertisement. The first type is a translation of it, when the slogan is simply translated without any other adaptation (literal translation). This type is often used in American advertisement, because American culture, especially pop-culture is widely dominating nowadays. Images and symbols from the American pop-culture are widely recognizable.
The second way is the cultural adaptation, when stereotypes and features are transferred into the other culture along with the language. This type undermines that images and symbols of the original advertisement are replaced with the symbols and images of the host culture. This type can be used if a case when images with bright cultural specifics are used in the advertisement. This often happens in Russian advertisement, because Russian culture (including folk-culture) is an object of pride in Russia.
This type makes advertisement easier to understand, because some symbols can work differently in the different culture, others just won’t work, because consumers just don’t understand them, but others could be offensive or so silly that it’ll make them more like negative publicity. This type also must be used when the original advertisement is based on puns or other untranslatable devices. Different replacements and other types of adaptation can be used to transfer an advertisement from one culture to another.
Interaction of different cultures and peoples has never been closer than nowadays, thank to different modern technologies. But despite this the interaction countries and peoples retain their cultural peculiarities.
Cultural specifics reflect in many aspects of our life, even when we do not understand this reflection or do not guess about its existence. Advertisement discourse often uses the images of everyday life and these images also often have cultural specifics. Various cultural references and symbols are also used in advertisement. If the goods produced in one country and sold and marketed in the other, it may be difficult to transfer the adaptation of advertising from one country to another. This problem includes the cultural adaptation of the images and video, but main
Показать всеly it deals with the translation of advertising texts and slogans.
The object of our paper is “Cultural peculiarities of translation in Advertisement Discourse (based on Russian, English and French)”.
Every culture chosen for the study has its own specifics in culture of advertisement and of culture in general. For example for a very long period of time there was no commercial advertisement in Russia in Western meaning of this word, but since the end of Communism, adverts for Western products have been flooding onto the Russian market. This couldn’t but reflect the culture of advertisement in Russia.
The timeliness of our research is defined by the role that advertisement plays in our culture. There are many studies on this topic, but in our research we are going to compare three languages and specifics of the translation of the advertisement from one language to the other.
The goal of our study is analyses of the cultural peculiarities in translation of Advertisement Discourse into Russian, English and French.
This problem defines several tasks of the study:
to characterize advertisement as a special type of discourse;
to define the concept of the translation;
to specify the peculiarities of the modern Russian, English and French advertisement discourse;
to analyse the specifics of the advertising translation in Russian, English and French culture.
The object of the paper is cultural peculiarities and the subject is their reflection in the translation of the certain national kinds of the advertisement discourse.
Structure of the paper. It includes introduction, two chapters, conclusion and the references (63 points, including the list of dictionaries). Скрыть
1 Advertisement as a special type of discourse 5
1.1 Linguistic and imagery specifics of the advertisement discourse 5
1.2 Symbolism in the advertisement discourse 12
1.3 National and cultural specifics of the advertisement discourse 15
2 Approaches to advertising translation based on the cultural differences 20
2.1 Translation as a means of cultural transfer 20
2.2 Translation of the advertising discourse 26
2.2 Specifics of Russian, English, French advertising discourse 31
3 Peculiarities of translation of the advertisement discourse with national and cultural specifics 36
2.1 Translation of the Russian advertisement discourse with cultural specifics 36
2.2 Translation of the English advertisement discourse with cultural specifics 40
2.3 Translation of the French
Показать все advertisement discourse with cultural specifics 45
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Actually, the translator is conveying the meaning expressed by the original writer so the end reader gets a translated text that is faithful to the source text in meaning.Sometimes the translator finds it necessary to reconsider the original wording for better understanding of the source text in order to render it in the target language.When dealing with a translation, one of the processes included in the work is the analysis of the ST. This analysis, called TOSTA (Translation Oriented Source Text Analysis), helps us discover the function of the text, the target readers (with different levels of knowledge and different ages), as well as “ST elements that need to be preserved or adapted in translation”.The translation process is of twofold:The translator needs to detect possible modificati
Показать всеons and flaws in the original text and understand the meaning they intend to convey. To do this, the translator often needs to be familiar with the contents of the text in order to clarify the ambiguities he has come across.The translator will unwrap the syntactic structure of the original text and then formulate the corresponding message in the target language, thus giving the original text added value in terms of both wording and impact .In fact, Newmark asserts that the process of translation operates in four levels:source text level: the source text itself and its immediate impression on the translator.referential level: the level of content of the text (technically the level of the conceptual representation) .cohesive level: the level where you aim at making a cohesive target text (and analyze the cohesion of the source text).level of naturalness: the level of constructing a natural target text in an appropriate language.1. The textual level:At this level, you translate, or transpose, the syntactic structures of the source text into corresponding structures in the target text. Often you will find that, for a variety of reasons, you will have to change these structures into something quite different further down the line to achieve target language naturalness.2 . The referential level:As mentioned above, this is the level of content, so here you operate primarily with the message (or information) or semantics of the text. This is where you decode the meaning of the source text and build the conceptual representation. This is where you disambiguate polysemous words and phrases and where you decode idioms and figurative expressions. This is where you figure out whether what the locution(s) and illocution(s) of the source text are and what the perlocution might be.Once you have decoded the word or expression in question, you encode it into an appropriate target language expression. Note that there will be cases, like idioms and metaphors, in which you will have to use literal expressions in the target language, because it does not have any corresponding idioms or metaphors.The referential level and the textual level are, of course, closely intertwined, as the nature and texture of the source text convey the message, and, of course, you also encode the message, using language, into the target text.3. The cohesive level:The cohesive level links the textual and the referential levels in that it deals with the structure/format of the text and information as well as with what Newmark calls the mood of the text.At the structural sublevel, you investigate how various connectors, such as conjunctions, enumerations, repetitions or reiterations, definite articles and determiners, general category labels, synonyms, punctuation marks, simple or complex conjuncts, link sentences and structure the text and what Newmark calls its train of thought – which is basically its underlying information structure.You establish its tone by finding so-called value-laden and value-free passages, such as subjective and objective bits, euphemisms, and other framing devices, framing being the strategy of linguistically presenting something in the perspective of one's own values and worldview, in a way promoting these. All of this will have to be somehow transferred into the target text so you achieve maximal equivalence at this level .4. The level of naturalness:This level is target text oriented, focusing exclusively on the construction of the target text. Random, unpredictable things that just seem unnatural in the target language makes things more complicated as naturalness often depends on the situation, such that something might seem natural in one context but unnatural in another. Perhaps, the only way, to ensure naturalness is to read through your translation and spot unnaturally sounding parts and change them into something that sounds more natural. This is something that most people skip when they do translations .Cultural translation represents the practice of translation, which involves cultural differences. Cultural translation can be also defined as a practice whose aim is to present another culture via translation. This kind of translation solves some issues linked to culture, such as dialects, food or architecture.The main issue that cultural translation must solve consists in translating a text as showing cultural differences of this text, in respecting the source culture.Cultural translation obviously implies the notion of culture, which needs here to be defined, in order to understand well the term cultural translation. Culture offers two different meanings: the first one defines culture as a civilized society in a developed country, whereas the second one considers culture as a whole set of behaviours and ways of life that a people shares. As previously explained, culture gets an important role and meaning in translation. According to Katan, culture is a shared model of the world, a hierarchical model of beliefs, values and strategies which can guide action and interaction of people. Culture can be acquired through diverse ways, like education.The term civilization is defined as a developed human society which managed to create its own culture through people. Through this concept, a translator is able to translate a text by solving the issue of a culture’s development. In this case, Newmark is convinced that translation is culturally valued, that is to say translation improves cultures’ development within the entire world. As civilization lead to the creation of evident ways of communication, such alphabet, dictionaries and to a tremendous development of languages and literatures, this process raised new questions in cultural translation .Culture has a huge influence on society and politics of a country, in terms of ideology. According to some translation researchers such as Even-Zohar, Susan Bassnett and Trivedi, culture is also linked to the will of power and to the way people pretend to this power. In this sense, translation deals with making systems of ideologies comprehensible for the readers . Translation of cultures is therefore linked to ethics and explains a new way of thinking. This kind of translation must show the context and the personal way of thinking through translated texts.2.2 Translation of the advertising discourseOverseas advertising is produced to support the sales of products and services in more than one country. There are four kinds of structures for those advertisers who expand their markets outside their home country: international, multinational, global and transnational.An international company begins by exporting some of the products which it already produces. The home office controls overseas operations, but as the company becomes more involved in international trade it may enter into joint ventures with local companies or invest in overseas facilities.A multinational company responds to market differences by formulating marketing strategies for each country in which it operates. Each subsidiary within a multinational company is managed as though it were an independent city-state. A global company focuses on the cost-effectiveness of centralized operations. The global advertiser centres on global customers by determining a basic marketing strategy that can be used worldwide. A transnational company uses global resources to serve global customers. The transnational company mixes and matches to achieve optimum efficiency, and displays both centralized and localized aspects. In recent years, many companies have been switching from global to transnational methods of production. A transnational company focuses on core-competency, and outsources the activities in which it is less strong.Cultural differences between countries are caused by different view on value, belief, different esthetic level, morality concepts and so on . This differences make the changes in advertising strategies nearly unavoidable.To encourage consumers to buy products or services, advertisements play a significant role in society. With increasing imports and exports, it is crucial to translate advertisements according to consumers’ backgrounds. To translate an advertisement from one language or culture into another, the translator should consider the target consumers’ culture, their ways of living, and the dominant political and ideological reasons behind their specific shopping behaviors. The dominant political and ideological reasons behind translators’ specific behaviors in translating advertisements cab be considered in terms of being cultural filters .With the increasingly clear developments of imports and exports, it seems crucial to translate foreign trade advertisements according to consumers’ cultural and ideological backgrounds. Given that consideration of cultural conventions and expectations, and application of the most appropriate translation techniques seem necessary for translating advertisements, advertising texts have been widely studied from both linguistic and sociological viewpoints in the research recently conducted in the field of translation studies.There has long been heated debate over the proper translation strategy for transmission of cultural elements. The major concerns in translation of advertising are domestication and foreignization, the two disputable cultural translation strategies proposed by Venuti (1995), which have been the focus of debate since their appearance .The result of this controversy is emergence of three major schools with different views on advertising in other countries: 1. Globalization (standardization). School disputes the view that differences between countries - is more a matter of levels than lines, so advertisers should focus on general consumers all over the world; 2. Localization (adaptation). This school argues that advertisers need to think about differences between countries, including culture, economy level and industrial development, life cycle stage, mass media availability, research availability and governmental restrictions; 3. Conjugate (medium variant). This school believes that neither full standardization nor competed adaptation are important, and that combination of two approaches can be taken as a basis for advertising management in many countries after a serious factors evaluation that may influence its effectiveness .In the domestication strategy, the translator transfers the source text into the target language and adjusts it to the target conventions and culture. The main purpose of this translation strategy is the receivers. Accordingly, the translator tries to recreate the effect of the original text for target reader and audience. Following this approach, translations do not read like translations, and consequently the text seems like an original text.Domestication principle is target culture oriented. And advertisement translation, being set at the reader’s level of language and knowledge, is more likely to create equivalent effect, which makes it natural to apply domestication principle. What’ more, the vocative function of advertisement requires the translators to strictly follow domestication principle in translation.Advertisers endeavor to attract customers’ attention and encourage them to purchase a product or service. To do so, rhetorical figures are sometimes used, so as to have specific effects on potential consumers. In fact, the translator’s task, when translating advertising slogans and commercial images, is to ascertain, and then apply, the appropriate strategies to reach this goal. In the translation of advertisements, both the source and target texts are part of the same marketing campaign and production process.In the present study, nine of Molina and Albir’s (2002) eighteen techniques of translation, and Venuti’s theory of domesticating and foreignizing (1995) were applied to analyze the collected data. Therefore, part of the present research is based on the following set of nine of the techniques of translating advertisements proposed by Molina and Albir (2002):Adaptation(Pure/naturalized) borrowingCalqueDescriptionLiteral translationReductionTranspositionEstablished equivalentModulation .1. Adaptation: Adaptation is the replacement of an ST cultural element with an element from the target culture. Adaptation was one of the most frequently used translation techniques for rendering advertisements from one language and one culture into another.2. Borrowing: This translation technique refers to taking a word or expression directly from another language. Borrowing can be of two types: Pure borrowing and naturalized borrowing. Pure borrowing is that without any change. On the other hand, borrowing can be naturalized, so as to fit spelling rules of the target language (TL).3. Calque: A calque is a literal translation of a foreign word or phrase. A calque may be either lexical or structural.4. Description: Description is the replacement of a term or expression with a description of its form and/or function. Translators rarely use this strategy, due to cultural filters or lack of creativity in their translations.5. Literal translation: Literal, or word for word translation is the translation of an expression or a sentence word for word.6. Reduction: This translation technique is the suppression of a ST information item in the target text (TT).7. Transposition: In this translation technique, the grammatical category of a word is changed.8. Established equivalence: Established equivalence is the use of a term or expression recognized by dictionaries, or in use as an equivalent in the TL.9. Modulation: Modulation is the use of different phrases in the SL and TL that convey the same idea. Modulation changes the semantics and shifts the point of view of the source language. The modulation strategy is normally used so as to achieve more eloquence in the target text .2.2 Specifics of Russian, English, French advertising discourseIn United States history, advertising has responded to changing business demands, media technologies, and cultural contexts, and it is here, not in a fruitless search for the very first advertisement, that we should begin. In the eighteenth century, many American colonists enjoyed imported British consumer products such as porcelain, furniture, and musical instruments, but also worried about dependence on imported manufactured goods.Since the 1920s, American advertising has grown massively, and current advertising expenditures are eighty times greater than in that decade. New media–radio, television, and the Internet–deliver commercial messages in ways almost unimaginable 80 years ago. Beneath the obvious changes, however, lie continuities. The triad of advertiser, agency, and medium remains the foundation of the business relations of advertising. Advertising men and women still fight an uphill battle to establish their professional status and win ethical respect. Perhaps the most striking development in advertising styles has been the shift from attempting to market mass-produced items to an undifferentiated consuming public to ever more subtle efforts to segment and target particular groups for specific products and brands. In the 1960s, what Madison Avenue liked to call a “Creative Revolution” also represented a revolution in audience segmentation. Advertisements threw a knowing wink to the targeted customer group who could be expected to buy a Volkswagen beetle or a loaf of Jewish rye instead of all-American white bread.For years, the United States dominated the advertising world with France as one of its main followers. Essentially, the intellectual leaders were American since the marketing and advertising think tanks were identified with American universities. However, since the 1970s, French advertising has come into its own and now clearly distinguishes itself from American advertising. A case in point is found in the fact that success in global marketing requires the understanding of distinct patterns of communication in each target country, since these patterns are in direct correlation with broader cultural, historical, and linguistic variations .In France, French must always be used as the language of publicity and advertising: English slogans and phrases may only be used with accompanying French translations . Cultural sensitivity and understanding of protocol is paramount to effective marketing in France. The intricacies of a nation, its beliefs, even its superstitions, can make or break your business. Know the French market; immerse yourself in it. Never assume your marketing strategy will be transplantable to a foreign country. There is only a slim chance language will translate well. Anglophonic countries may be susceptible, but if your product or service plays on a quintessentially British characteristic or joke the chances are, it will not be well received.As for other countries, don't bank on using the same strap-lines or gimmicks. Unless they are perfectly transitional, your product or service could suffer especially if it relies on humour.French advertising has often been criticized for focusing too much on sex, that is also referred as “l’esprit gaulois” and appears throughout French advertising. Humor and sex join forces, while the absence of Puritanism makes the images more powerful and the words more explicit. Obviously, French advertising is not uniquely sex with a sense of humor. The universe of reference for the French consumer is all of France: its regions, its history, its art, its literature, the character of the people who live there and their mentality. French advertising continually makes reference to French culture rather than just simply to the product itself. Maurice Lévy confirms this fact when, appearing to complain, he comments that: “le publicitairement correct est de ne pas parler des produits” (in Mirande and Le Bourdonnec 73). Post-Soviet advertising business development process in Russia is characterized by a sudden influx of bright and diverse advertising products. It took more than a year to ensure that consumers no longer believe in everything that is demonstrated in commercials, like “interests and dividends”. For the first time customers noticed that advertising is not always true and accurately reflects the state of financial affairs in a firm, after scandals with companies. That is why newspapers and magazines began to publish information on advertising pages that “responsibility for the content of ads entirely borne by advertisers”. Perhaps the case of fraud would be less if Russia, if researchers have analyzed experience of more developed countries in advertising field . Mass consumer psychology in society and Russian consumers’ psychology are reasonably different. Moreover our consciousness specificity cannot be ignored and it must be borne in mind that advertising under influence of communist propaganda was regarded as 'bourgeois' phenomenon, which is alien to a "socialist" way of life. Скрыть
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