Multilaterialism or regionalism: challenges of religional trade/agreements between WTO members
List of literature
"List of literature
1.Karro D., Jouar P. International economic right. М: International relations, 2007. p.. 32
2.Mantusov V.B.Questions of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization: preconditions, possibilities, consequences//Sb. Scientific articles under the editorship of Mantusova.-M.: Dicacademia, 2003.- 117-118 p
4.Sorokin R.G. Problems of ecomony.-M.: Sputnik+, 2006
5.Space and time in world politics and world relations: materials 4 Convents RAMI/ under the editorship of A.Ju.Melvilja; Russian Association of the international researches. – М:
6.Vulf M. Double standards of WTO//Financial Times, 2008.- November 21
7.Zerkin I.V.Right of the World Trade Organization. М: International relations, 2003
For trade in goods, Article XXIV:5(a) provides that, with respect to a customs union, the “duties and other regulations of commerce imposed at the institution of any such union ...in respect of trade with contracting parties not parties to such union or agreement shall not on the whole be higher or more restrictive than the general incidence of the duties and regulations of commerce applicable in the constituent territories prior to the formation of such union...”. With respect to a free trade area, Article XXIV:5(b) makes the same requirement for the trade policy of each of the countries which are party to such an agreement.
The grouping of the countries in economic blocks doesn't mean unconditional progress in realization of ideas of free trade or capitulation before protectionist princ
Показать всеiples. The dilemma "free trade" or protectionism doesn't cease to exist. It is transferred on other level of the foreign trade relations where the decision of economic policy choice of group to third countries is defined. It Is typically, that even within the limits of separate trade and economic groupings there are contradictions between some countries, outgrowing in so-called "trading wars" (for example, grape, oil "wars" between EU Member).
Whether RTAs have favored or conflicted with the mutual development of the multilateral trading system, that is, whether RTAs have functioned as ‘building blocks’ or ‘stumbling blocks’ vis-à-vis the multilateral process, has been heavily debated in recent years.
RTS promotes expansion of export. These factors are especially important for countries with small or smaller trade volume.
RTS can be used also by the countries as the tool for closer integration of their economy, rather than it is possible in frameworks of WTO, especially on those questions which aren't solved on multilevel, for example investments, regulation of a competition, labor and social standards.
For the separate countries, first of all small and developing, RTS are essential from the point of view of protection and safety particular in the conditions of globalization. Membership in RTS can be considered as means of attraction of investments, especially for the countries with cheap labor.
Supporters of RTS underline the advantages following from Expansions of scales, a competition and attraction of investments in Larger economy. In spite of the fact that liberalization in RTS is a secondary problem, it can become unique a possibility, if liberalization is impossible in this sphere on the multilateral level or can't be reached because of contradictions.5
RTS can serve as range for innovations and a basis for acceptance of new trade rules at multilateral level. Creation regional blocks promotes strengthening of degree of an external openness both to creation and trade expansion. In works of many economists six arguments in protection of regional trade association are put forward:
1. Liberalization and mainly unification and removal non-tariff restrictions within the f integration associations is faster, than within the limits of all world trading system. It can be considered as a basis for further liberalization,
Seldom the decisions accepted at level of grouping, are subject of revision towards deterioration.
2. Besides, very many measures on liberalization, it is fulfilled and checked up in regional scales, have been transferred in WTO practice.
3. Initiatives on regional integration are good stimulus for the further active work of officials and politicians at the international level.
4. Regional and preferential agreements created bases for trade development, regional liberalization and accelerates these processes and facilitates their regulation.
5. Regional mechanisms frequently allow to tighten economic development level of weaker region for the account of stronger economically partners. Скрыть
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