The implementation of the IAS/IFRS accounting system in Russia: theory and reality.
1.Basic problem of IFRS implementation //www. financial-lawyer.ru
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3.IFRS implementation: standard policy// www.TatCenter.ru
4.Pimenov A.L. About IFRS//Prpblems of economy, 2010.- N 3
5.Taimanov V. IFRS in Russia: difficulties of implementation//Chief accountant, 2009.-№ 10
3. Translation of the data from other type of the account. The consulting companies which have experience in automation of the financial accounting or budgeting, have approached to a problem of IFRS implementation as to a problem of maintenance of this or that accounting type. In each specific case at automation the financial accounting of the enterprise is not known in advance and consequently technologies are flexible and provide realization various registration the politician of the enterprise. At this approach all complexity of IFRS application is reduced to working out and maintenance of a financial accounting of the enterprise directed on conformity to IFRS standards. Such way the American model of accounting US GAAP is developed and consequently nowadays it is the closest system
Показать всеto IFRS, allowing receiving the reporting corresponding to requirements of the international standards.3
The choice of a way of drawing up of the IFRS reporting is usually caused by prospective expenses and the purpose of implementation of the international standards in the company. The more widely management is going to use the information prepared by IFRS basis (for example, for the financial accounting and budgeting), the more often the companies choose parallel conducting the account. Such way, is more effective as allows the company to build system of the internal reporting on the same principles, as external.
The basic distinctions between the Russian standards and IFRS which are important especially if company use the third approach are:
1. First of all, difficulties arise because of various level of detailed of the Russian and international chart of accounts. Often several Russian accounts correspond to one IFRS account, and on the contrary. Not all systems are capable to maintain the relations which are not providing biunique conformity. In this case it is necessary to break accounts into some subaccounts even at realization same enough simple operations.
Other problem is connected with various time frameworks and a technique of the account in the end of the period. The matter is that under the Russian standards and IFRS use not only the various accounting periods, but also a different technique of closing entries in the end of the period is possible. In this case it is necessary to carry out procedures of closing entries separately in two databases.
2. The assets accounting means also represents a problem. In the account under the Russian standards and IFRS various methods and depreciation rates can be used. As a result there is a situation when assets depreciation after its disposal in one log book continue in other, therefore direct transformation of corresponding accounts isn't represented possible. Thus, it is necessary to conduct the separate account of the assets in each database. So memorandum account or individual postings are used for this purpose in both log books.
3. The same concerns low-value and short-lived items account: according to IFRS they can be referred to expenses at the moment of acquisition, and under the Russian standards can be amortized by transfer to operation.
4. Realization of duplication of operations input in two databases doesn't represent a technical problem. However our experience shows that people, as a rule, negatively concern "double" work. Besides, they often forget about it or make mistakes if, in their opinion, the problem isn't of great importance for their daily work: IFRS individual postings aren't necessary for reporting in the Russian tax departments.
5. Another problem is connected with acknowledgment of indebtedness under the Russian standards and IFRS. For example, at extension of an invoice at the IFRS there is an individual posting. However the invoice under the Russian standards isn't the obligatory document, therefore there are no individual postings into the Russian accounts. The debts admit only at invoice-proforma. The similar problem exists at the account of monetary funds: according to the Russian standards of the account of monetary funds are updated on the basis of a bank statement, and according to IFRS - on the basis of the received or given out payment order.
6. Other problems are connected with an estimation of inventory. Methods of an estimation of stocks can differ in IFRS and Russian standards. Ideally the system should provide the account of stocks in two functional currencies for simplification and increase of efficiency of the reporting.
7. Also there are a number of specific problems at adjustment of operations under accounts of debtors and creditors for the account in two currencies. It can be demanded manually to make additional updatings at the moment of correlation of the exposed account and the received payment. At closing entries in one currency it is necessary to close also it in the second registration, and at this moment there can be divergences because of the different exchange rates operating at the moment of extension of an invoice and reception of payment.4
During IFRS application accountant haven noticed the following:
Published IFRS standards represent the arch of principles, and there not enough recommendations about application of these principles.
Accountant should apply own judgments about cost and they needed corresponding recommendations. Besides their judgment often differed from independent auditors judgments.
Actually, there are no recommendations about branches for IFRS implementation IFRS 41: Agriculture.
The IFRS Financial reporting is much more difficult, than the similar reporting by the Russian Accounting Standards. Now the accountant should explain to a management value of the maintenance. The Russian accounting much more consecutive and easier , but also less substantial.
The Volume of IFRS definitions increases every year, and also the number of standards and interpretations increases. It complicates a problem of IFRS application. Скрыть
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