На примере одной компании(крупной компании, например Ikea) ответить на вопросы
II. Executive summary
III. SCM organizational structures and evolution
IV. Major SCM initiatives
V. Key elements of SCM excellence in the chemical industry
VI. Company profile and Bain contacts
1.Harland, C.M. (2009) Supply Chain Management, Purchasing and Supply Management, Logistics, Vertical Integration, Materials Management and Supply Chain Dynamics. In: Slack, N (ed.) Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Operations Management. UK: Blackwell.
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3.Lavassani K., Movahedi B., Kumar V. (2009) Developments in Theories of Supply Chain Management: The Case of B2B Electronic Marketplace Adoption, The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp. 85–98.
4.Mentzer, J.T. et al. (2001): Defining Supply Chain Management, in: Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 1–25
5.Simchi-Levi D.,Kaminsky P., Simchi-le
Показать всеvi E. (2007), Designing and Managing the Supply Chain, third edition, Mcgraw Hill Скрыть
For this reason, delivery commitments to customers either cannot be made in initial contact or are unreliable. As a result trouble shooting increases and customer complaints occur (see section on major SCM initiatives).IV. Major SCM initiativesCurrent SCM initiatives pursue the following objectives:First, supply chain initiatives focus on untapped cost reduction opportunities. Secondly, measures have been taken to improve the order fulfillment process, especially the order entry sequence for increased customer service and satisfaction. Thirdly, all firms implement or optimize key performance indicator systems (KPIs) to control and actively manage SCM performance (refer to chart).A. Aggressive cost management resulting in direct bottom line resultsOn average, participating companies estima
Показать всеte total supply chain costs at around 10-12% of total cost, whereas followers assume at least 12-14% or more (please refer to chart 8). Best demonstrated practices on single business unit level potentially achieve costs below 10%.Most important non-headcount SC cost components are freight and transport management, inventory carrying and warehousing cost. To address these cost components various measures have been initiated:•Freight/transport management costsChemical companies have started transport partner consolidation to achieve better terms and to reduce administrative complexity.Sometimes a central freight procurement unit at corporate level is established to coordinate logistics partners, to bundle purchasing power and to negotiate freight contracts centrally. The highest degree of consolidation resulted in the complete outsourcing of transport management to one leading global logistics provider. The instructed logistics service provider practices IT-based backward integration and manages freight related services comprehensively. Core business of the service provider remains captive transport and global management of local subcontracted carriers. Services include order grouping and ranking, load optimization, delivery planning and control, order tracking and tracing, global document management and financial controlling. The outsourcing decision was taken based on a global tender process, full implementation will require an 18 months plus effort.•Inventory carrying costsExcess inventory is one of the main cost drivers in the supply chain. While the operational supply usually keeps a focus on finished and intermediate products in ex-factory and regional warehouses, additional hidden buffer stocks tend to exist within production facilities.On the finished product/customer facing supply chain level, a relatively simple and realistic quick hit is to carry out product related ABC analysis to identify "slow turning" products. Subsequently workout programs for C products have to be set-up to eliminate dead stocks.The fundamental root cause behind excess inventory of finished product is a combination of inaccurate forecasting and a lack of communication between sales and manufacturing through SCM. Companies therefore focus on three activities to optimize the planning and forecasting process: process standardization and discipline in operating standard processes, application of standard software planning tools and collaborative planning with selected clients/key accounts.Firstly, process standardization and discipline is a generic approach that addresses "people issues" as one of the major root causes of inaccurate forecasting. The combination of multiple parties with differing beliefs that provide planning data, inevitably leads to sub-optimal consensus arrangements and yield loss in terms of process efficiencies.For this reason process sequence and planning content have to be determined top down by senior SCM management. Accordingly, clear roles and responsibilities need to be defined with clear leadership assigned to the process owner. Finally, in case of significant conflict, a binding consensus mechanism has to be established.Secondly, companies indicate their intent to reinforce application of existing software planning tools as part of process standardization. Widely applied "manual Excel solutions" have not increased planning accuracy. Intensive training for specialized demand planners will offset former lack of software tool familiarity.The third activity is to strengthen the integration of customer information in the forecasting process., This is partially an already existing practice through the use of informal data sharing with customers. As part of process standardization demand planners will at least contact large customers consistently to obtain more reliable forecast information (please refer to chart 9). Based on both standard planning tools and client collaboration planning process, owners receive the best available data pool for forecasting decisions.Firms have started to establish supplier relationships through vendor managed inventory (VMI) applications beyond collaborative forecasting (please refer to chart 10). The participants' perception of VMI is ambiguous. Some companies actively push VMI penetration with focus on key account clients through dedicated technical sales support. Other companies have chosen a more reactive approach, questioning whether the effort and one-time investments for VMI applications will amortize.• Warehousing costsParallel to inventory cost reductions firms undertake efforts to optimize warehouse structures. Efforts range from complete warehouse or terminal resolution to consolidation through to downsizing remaining warehouses or outsourcing of formerly self-managed warehousing activities. There is Usually an inverse correlation between warehouse structure costs and freight spending. However, since warehouse network rationalization supports inventory reduction, the short-term increase in freight costs is far lower than the combined savings of the other two categories.Beyond non-headcount supply chain cost optimization, consolidation of customer service units is the major driver in reducing supply chain headcount - and thus costs -even further.In order to reduce headcount two levers are applied. Firstly, order fulfillment process standardization and optimization leads to clear roles and eliminates double work in the process. Secondly, companies have started consolidating order desks or customer service units. Although order desks are usually not explicitly part of the formal supply chain organization, order entry and order information processing are supply chain activities.Advanced players have given up maintaining order desks on the country level. Customer service infrastructures are now set-up in 5-7 major European markets and locations covering key languages. This maximum consolidation has led to concentration of 80% of customer service staff at headquarters. Service representatives with language skills are hired and local country service hotlines are used to maintain client perception of "local service". Only large-scale business units are allowed to maintain customer service staff in different countries (please refer to chart 11).Accordingly, operational business units concentrate sales back office employees or customer service representatives (CSR) in service centers. CSRs usually continue to be allocated to countries, product groups or clients. This means that customer service centers function differently from pure call centers in which there is no longer a link between CSR and the individual customer. Especially small clients oppose call center service while international key accounts signal preference for call center or single reference point support. Recent developments in the US indicate that call centers for administrative sales support staff offer significant cost reduction potential (please refer to chart ).B. Improved order fulfillment process leading to increased customer service and satisfactionThe order entry sequence as a key step in the order fulfillment process is subject to changes covering organizational and IT aspects increasing customer service and satisfaction.Companies face a number of challenges in order entry. As consolidated client history data is not available redundant information needs to be collected from clients. Customer service representatives have difficulty in determining delivery dates or lead times when talking to customers. A lack of process discipline and a lack of integrated IT systems are root causes for these problems. Furthermore, even if IT infrastructure is in place, users do not use IT tools to their full potential. Subsequently order throughput time is high and productivity of customer relationship employees low. Customers are dissatisfied, owing to the non-availability of delivery dates or owing to later delivery date revision.Objectives for process improvement projects include conscientiously updated customer data and real-time retrievable stock levels or lead times for out-of-stock products. Based on this information customer service representatives should have the authority to make binding commitments with regard to delivery volumes and client dates without internal verifications.In order to make this a reality standardized roles and responsibilities need to be defined for all parties "feeding" data into IT systems. This includes sales, marketing, manufacturing and SCM. SCM as the ultimately responsible unit for order fulfillment should take on a leading coordination role.C. Continuous and consistent controlling through KPI systemsThe third large common initiative is the requirement for SCM specific controlling systems. Supply chain executives need complete data transparency. All study participants have established or are developing KPI systems to track SC performance. The degree of sophistication varies significantly. KPI systems cover both financial as well as non-financial SC criteria (refer to chart).Most companies are transitioning from "measuring something" to actively controlling and managing functional performance. For this reason KPI systems are consistently implemented across organizational units. The objective is to identify best practices and to derive realistic, yet ambitious targets.Currently KPI systems are "fashionable" owing to a significant backlog. The reason is as simple as it is shocking: owing to the past functional silo set-up of organizations, companies do not know their exact supply chain process costs.V. Key elements of SCM excellence in the chemical industryIn order to realize maximum results from a redesign of the supply chain, chemical companies should start by setting a strategic agenda for their supply chain performance. The question whether only to focus on costs or to strike a delicate balance between costs, service levels and sales growth can vary by geography and/or product category. Ideally, strategy drives processes rather than organizational structure to optimize efficiency. Скрыть
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