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List of literature
1.Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001) Strategic Management. Houghton Mifflin
2.Cindy Gordon, Cashing in on corporate culture, CA magazine, January-February 2008
3.Enrique Ruiz, Discriminate Or Diversify, PositivePsyche.Biz Corp, 2009
4.Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov.Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2010.
6.Kotter, J. P. (1992). Corporate Culture and Performance. New York: The Free Press.
7.Shein, Edgar (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 9.
8.Shein, Edgar (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 9.
Показать всеoolliams, Peter; Trompenaars, Fons. "Business weltweit: der Weg zum interkulturellen Management", Trompenaars, Fons; Hampden-Turner, Charles. "Riding the Waves of Culture" Скрыть
In the "Role Culture" authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure.
In a "Task Culture" teams are formed to solve particular problems.
"Person Culture" is formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization.
Hofstede (1980) looked for global differences between over 100,000 of IBM's employees in 50 different countries and three regions of the world, in an attempt to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior. He suggested about cultural differences existing in regions and nations, and the importance of international awareness and multiculturalism for the own cultural introspection. Cultural differences reflect differences in thinking and social action, and even in "mental programs", a term Hofstede uses for predictable
Показать всеbehaviour. Hofstede relates culture to ethnic and regional groups, but also organizations, profession, family, to society and subcultural groups, national political systems and legislation, etc. Hofstede suggests of the need of changing "mental programs" with changing behaviour first which will lead to value change and he suggests that however certain groups like Jews, Gypsies and Basques have maintained their identity through centuries without changing4.
According to Schein (1992), culture is the most difficult organizational attribute to change, outlasting organizational products, services, founders and leadership and all other physical attributes of the organization. His organizational model illuminates culture from the standpoint of the observer, described by three cognitive levels of organizational culture5.
At the first and most cursory level of Schein's model is organizational attributes that can be seen, felt and heard by the uninitiated observer - collectively known as artifacts. Included are the facilities, offices, furnishings, visible awards and recognition, the way that its members dress, how each person visibly interacts with each other and with organizational outsiders, and even company slogans, mission statements and other operational creeds.
Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. Daniel Denison (1990) describes artifacts as the tangible aspects of culture shared by members of an organization. Verbal, behavioral and physical artifacts are the surface manifestations of organizational culture.
Rituals, the collective interpersonal behavior and values as demonstrated by that behavior, constitute the fabric of an organization's culture The contents of myths, stories, and sagas reveal the history of an organization and influence how people understand what their organization values and believes. Language, stories, and myths are examples of verbal artifacts and are represented in rituals and ceremonies. Technology and art exhibited by members or an organization are examples of physical artifacts.
The next level deals with the professed culture of an organization's members - the values. Shared values are individuals’ preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization’s culture (e.g. loyalty, customer service). At this level, local and personal values are widely expressed within the organization. Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals' impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization, and are often deeply ingrained within the organization’s culture. Organizational behavior at this level usually can be studied by interviewing the organization's membership and using questionnaires to gather attitudes about organizational membership.
At the third and deepest level, the organization's tacit assumptions are found. These are the elements of culture that are unseen and not cognitively identified in everyday interactions between organizational members. Additionally, these are the elements of culture which are often taboo to discuss inside the organization. Many of these 'unspoken rules' exist without the conscious knowledge of the membership. Those with sufficient experience to understand this deepest level of organizational culture usually become acclimatized to its attributes over time, thus reinforcing the invisibility of their existence. Surveys and casual interviews with organizational members cannot draw out these attributes—rather much more in-depth means is required to first identify then understand organizational culture at this level. Notably, culture at this level is the underlying and driving element often missed by organizational behaviorists.
The main theories for cross-cultural communication are based on the work done looking at value differences between different cultures, especially the works of Edward T. Hall, Richard D. Lewis, Geert Hofstede, and Fons Trompenaars. Clifford Geertz was also a contributor to this field. Also Jussi V. Koivisto's model on cultural crossing in internationally operating organisations elaborates from this base of research.
These theories have been applied to a variety of different communication theories and settings, including general business and management (Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner) and marketing (Marieke de Mooij, Stephan Dahl). There have also been several successful educational projects which concentrate on the practical applications of these theories in cross-cultural situations6.
"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede
The impact of organizational culture on the achievement of organisational objectives is implemented in the following ways:
- culture shapes the informal rules, intuitive and atmosphere;
-culture educates and motivates people, contributes to the perception of the goals, generates a favourable attitude to work.
The conflict between strategy and culture prevents perceive the goals, leads to ambiguous interpretation tasks. In this situation, employees must either adhere to the established culture and resist new methods of realization of the strategy or focus on a new strategy.
Corporate culture, its values and internal employee beliefs affect the extent of human responsibility for its task. If activist really shares the interest of the Organization and feels the importance and significance of the event,
He will try to quickly and efficiently fulfill its part of the job, not to
bring colleagues and bring the coveted results. Most often in public organization generates creative endeavour and willingness of staff to translate the overall idea
more creative or innovative way. It is very important here to notice such initiatives and to encourage their further development. The best indicator of the effective use of corporate culture in staff motivation is low staff turnover and a constant influx of new activists. This occurs when there is a unanimity of opinion and of the staff of the organization. The desire to leave the social group in which a man finds full understanding and mutual aid, in this case simply does not arise. And for people, even non-activists, high team spirit and unanimity of employees may become the determining factors for the public work.
Although little empirical research exists to support the link between organizational culture and organizational performance, there is little doubt among experts that this relationship exists. Organizational culture can be a factor in the survival or failure of an organization - although this is difficult to prove considering the necessary longitudinal analyses are hardly feasible. The sustained superior performance of firms like IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Procter & Gamble, and McDonald's may be, at least partly, a reflection of their organizational cultures.
Denison, Haaland, and Goelzer (2004) found that culture contributes to the success of the organization, but not all dimensions contribute the same. It was found that the impacts of these dimensions differ by global regions, which suggests that organizational culture is impacted by national culture. Additionally, Clarke (2006) found that a safety climate is related to an organization’s safety record7.
Organizational culture is reflected in the way people perform tasks, set objectives, and administer the necessary resources to achieve objectives. Culture affects the way individuals make decisions, feel, and act in response to the opportunities and threats affecting the organization.
Adkins and Caldwell (2004) found that job satisfaction was positively associated with the degree to which employees fit into both the overall culture and subculture in which they worked. A perceived mismatch of the organization’s culture and what employees felt the culture should be is related to a number of negative consequences including lower job satisfaction, higher job strain, general stress, and turnover intent8.
It has been proposed that organizational culture may impact the level of employee creativity, the strength of employee motivation, and the reporting of unethical behavior, but more research is needed to support these conclusions.
Organizational culture also has an impact on recruitment and retention. Individuals tend to be attracted to and remain engaged in organizations that they perceive to be compatible. Additionally, high turnover may be a mediating factor in the relationship between culture and organizational performance. Deteriorating company performance and an unhealthy work environment are signs of an overdue cultural assessment.
There are different types of organizational cultures. Their impact on the implementation of the strategy is different.
1. Strong organizational culture is inextricably linked with the principles. Typically, there is a clear mission statement and rules of conduct do not change when you change the company's management. Promote a culture conducive to the existence of strong leadership, commitment to the established traditions and a sincere concern for the welfare of customers, employees and shareholders. The conflict between strategy and strong culture is rapidly changing external environment. In this case, the required extensive changes.
2. Weak organizational culture characterized by many subcultures, the lack of a system of values, weak links between entities. Company officials believe a base income, there is a lack of common understanding of the objectives. Culture is the lack of support for the implementation of the strategy: does not prevent, but also does not help that process.
3. Junk culture degrades the overall performance of the company. Characteristics of an unhealthy culture are:
-the politicization of the internal environment;
-hostility to change;
-promotion of hard workers.
4. Adaptive culture characterized by mobility, the ability to effectively respond and adapt to changing conditions. When Adaptive cultures staff do not fear change, the company has been active in the identification and assessment of problems, search, adoption and implementation of decisions. In such companies, creates a culture that provides permanent reproduction of key values and principles. One of the distinctive features of adaptive culture is that the interests of all partners in decision-making and the changing external environment.
To study the impact of corporate culture on achievement of organisational objectives
We should take Tourism Organization "Travel-Max". Formation of corporate culture begins with the definition of the Organization's mission. Mission of this organization is to provide quality recreation to each tourist.
In this company a healthy corporate culture meets the conditions of successful management:
-a clear creed;
-correlation of the firm with the natural human behaviour (the human factor);
-the policy of universal interest;
Assuming that the company continuously develops and creates new tourism products you can define its strategy is a product development strategy, which involves the challenge of growth through the production of a new product and its realization on the already developed by the market.
Positive mindset of the company's personnel on the new prospects of the implementation of the strategy, and created conditions conducive to an organizational culture of work allows us to function alone, developing and gaining tempo automatically.
2. Modern management considers organizational culture as a powerful strategic tool to orient all offices and employees. There are several definitions of organizational culture.
· learned and applied by members of the organization values and norms which, crucially, define their behavior;
· atmosphere or the social climate in the Organization;
· dominant in the system of values and styles of behavior Скрыть
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