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1.Allaire, Y., and M. E. Firsirotu, M.E. 1984. Theories of organizational culture. Organization Studies 5:193-226.
2.Becker, H.S., and B. Geer. Latent culture. Administrative Science Quarterly 5: 303-313.
3.Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001) Strategic Management. Houghton Mifflin
4.Cindy Gordon, Cashing in on corporate culture, CA magazine, January-February 2008
5.Corporate (organizational) culture and organizational climate//
6.Enrique Ruiz, Discriminate Or Diversify, PositivePsyche.Biz Corp, 2009
7.Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision by Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD. Published by Authenticity Consulting, LLC, 2000. .
9.Kotter, J. P. (1992). Corporate Culture and
Показать всеPerformance. New York: The Free Press.
10.Louis, M.R. 1980. Organizations as culture-bearing milieux. In Organizational Symbolism. Edited by L.R. Pondy, et al. Greenwich, CT: JAI; Louis, M.R., B.Z. Posner, and G.N. Powell. 1983. The availability of socialization practices. Personnel Psychology 36( 4): 857-866.
11.Schein, E. 1990. Organizational culture. American Psychologist 45 (2): 109-119.
12.Schein, E. H. 1988.Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
13.Shein, Edgar (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 9.
14.Shein, Edgar (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 9.
15.Trice, H.M. Rites and Ceremonials in Organizational Culture. 1988. In Vol. 4., Perspectives on Organizational Sociology: Theory and Research. Edited by S.B. Bacharach and S.M. Mitchell. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
16.Trice, H.M., and J. M. Beyer, J.M. 1984. Studying organizational cultures through rites and ceremonials. Academy of Management Review 9: 653-669.
17.Trice, H.M., and J. M. Beyer. 1993. Cultures of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
18.Wuthnow, R., and M. Witten, M. 1988. New directions in the study of culture. Annual Review of Sociology 14: 50-51 Скрыть
values, customs and language)
Communicating effectively: strategies; identifying potential barriers and
ensuring strategies overcome them; developing self-awareness of own and
organisational culture; benefits of a diverse workforce; acculturation
programmes; intercultural communication skills
1. Culture refers to an organization's values, beliefs, and behaviors. In general, it is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis of which people interpret experiences and behave, individually and in groups.
Cultural statements become operationalized when executives articulate and publish the values of their firm which provide patterns for how employees should behave.
Firms with strong cultures achieve higher results because employees sustain focus both on what to do and how to do it.
Показать всеganizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is one of those terms that's difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. For example, the culture of a large, for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. -- similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone's personality1.
Corporate culture can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from, e.g., society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. The process is based on our assumptions, values and norms, e.g., our values on money, time, facilities, space and people. Outputs or effects of our culture are, e.g., organizational behaviors, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc.
The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Practitioners are coming to realize that, despite the best-laid plans, organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes, but also changing the corporate culture as well.
There is no single definition for organizational culture. The topic has been studied from a variety of perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology, to the applied disciplines of organizational behavior, management science, and organizational communication. Some of the definitions are listed below:
A set of common understandings around which action is organized, . . . finding expression in language whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960)2.
A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to new members (Louis 1980)3.
A system of knowledge, of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting . . . that serve to relate human communities to their environmental settings (Allaire and Firsirotu 1984)4.
The deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are: learned responses to the group's problems of survival in its external environment and its problems of internal integration; are shared by members of an organization; that operate unconsciously; and that define in a basic "taken -for-granted" fashion in an organization's view of itself and its environment (Schein 1988)5.
Any social system arising from a network of shared ideologies consisting of two components: substance-the networks of meaning associated with ideologies, norms, and values; and forms-the practices whereby the meanings are expressed, affirmed, and communicated to members (Trice and Beyer 1984)6.
This sampling of definitions represents the two major camps that exist in the study of organizational culture and its "application strategies." The first camp views culture as implicit in social life. Culture is what naturally emerges as individuals transform themselves into social groups as tribes, communities, and ultimately, nations. The second camp represents the view that culture is an explicit social product arising from social interaction either as an intentional or unintentional consequence of behavior. In other words, culture is comprised of distinct observable forms (e.g., language, use of symbols, ceremonies, customs, methods of problem solving, use of tools or technology, and design of work settings) that groups of people create through social interaction and use to confront the broader social environment. (Wuthnow and Witten 1988)7.
Schein (2009), Deal & Kennedy (2000), Kotter (1992) and many others state that organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures8.
Charles Handy (1976) described four types of culture/ They are9:
"Power Culture" concentrates power among a small group or a central figure and its control is radiating from its center like a web.
In the "Role Culture" authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure.
In a "Task Culture" teams are formed to solve particular problems.
"Person Culture" is formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization.
According to Schein (1992), culture is the most difficult organizational attribute to change, outlasting organizational products, services, founders and leadership and all other physical attributes of the organization. His organizational model illuminates culture from the standpoint of the observer, described by three cognitive levels of organizational culture10.
2. Several authors use this definition of organizational culture:
Organizational culture is the sum total of an organization's past and current assumptions, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, express or implied contracts, and written and unwritten rules that the organization develops over time and that have worked well enough to be considered valid. Also called corporate culture, it manifests in (1) the ways the organization conducts its business, treats its employees, customers, and the wider community, (2) the extent to which autonomy and freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas, and personal expression, (3) how power and information flow through its hierarchy, and (4) the strength of employee commitment towards collective objectives. It is termed strong or weak to the extent it is diffused through the organization. It affects the organization's productivity and performance, and provides guidelines on customer care and service; product quality and safety; attendance and punctuality; and concern for the environment. It extends also to production-methods, marketing and advertising practices, and to new product creation. While there are many common elements in the large organizations of any country, organizational culture is unique for every organization and one of the hardest thing to change.
Unlike the organizational climate, culture is a long-term, slowly changing the core attribute of the organization. Organizational climate, because it is based on relationships can change quickly and dramatically. The culture is referred to as a non-characteristic, often subtle aspects of organizations; the climate is defined as a more obvious available monitoring attributes. Culture includes the core values and agreed to interpret the order of things; the concept of climate change include their individual perceptions, which often varies with the changing situation and the emergence of new information.
Culture refers to the deep structure of the Organization (values, beliefs, and assumptions). The climate is associated with aspects of the environment that are consciously perceived by members of the Organization11.
Culture refers to the hypotheses, beliefs and values, which are reflected in the responses to the questionnaires and interviews. On the culture of an organization impact the culture of society. The concept of organizational climate refers to the feelings of people in a given time, measured by one or more parameters (job satisfaction, performance management). Climate assessed on the basis of data obtained from questionnaires or interviews.
The concept of "organizational culture" demonstrates how something is, and how to do anything. Organizational culture can be defined as a reflection of the direction of the organization. Culture is associated with the functioning of the organization rather than the views of its members. Long-term and stable characteristic. The climate is relatively stable characteristics of the Organization, this excludes surface, instant reaction to the private situation but did not address the underlying idea behind the functioning of the organization. Climate concerns only individuals and their perception of reality that includes less resistant characteristics are more susceptible to external and internal influences. Short-term, Bo-Lee sculpting feature.
Organizational values is the set of vowels or unwritten rules by which employees determine priorities, form a system of conduct and rules that can succeed.
Values can be ethical, i.e., to determine that the organization is bad and good, moral and immoral.
Values can be socio-economic and describe:
How is business (progressively or approaches)
What is the overall strategic approach to the choice of the key advantages of the company (universal, specialization)
What is the cost structure and the rules of economic interactions within systems: "Division — the company as a whole, a private company, group of companies".
What the profitability of projects (which is the priority of the work below the margin at high margins on the back of lower margin), Скрыть
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