КОР_КИ Современные методы преподавания иностранного языка
Chapter 1 Methodologies in Foreign Language Teaching
1.1. The concepts of approach, method and technique and the major problems in modern FLT
1.2. Methods of teaching foreign languages
1. The Grammar-translation Method (1870s -1920s)
2. The Direct Method (1970s)
3. The Total Physical Response/TPR (1960s-2000s)
4. The Audio-lingual Method (1950s-1960s)
5. The Silent Way (1960s-2000s)
6. The Community Language Learning/CLL: (1960s-2000s)
7. The Suggestopedia (1960s-2000s)
8. The Natural/Communicative Approach (1960s-2000s)
Chapter 2 Practical application of language teaching methods
The Grammar-translation Method
The Direct Method
The Total Physical Response
The Audio-lingual Method
The Silent Way
The Community Language Learning
The Communicative App
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13. URL: http://esl.about.com/od/grammarlessons/a/t_suggestl.htm
The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. The process of language acquirement involves much work in language laboratories with earphones repeating after the teacher until the students can use the repeated structures spontaneously.Among the advantages of this method are:the lesson takes place entirely in the target language;the students use structures automatically without stopping to think;the students learn to overcome old habits of native language;the students are expected to produce the correct output, so attention is also paid to correct pronunciation;no explicit grammatical instruction is given (although correct grammar is expected in usage), grammar is introduced from models;cultural information is introduced and conte
Показать всеxtualized in dialogues.However, students are not exposed to real or realistic language and therefore unlikely to produce natural sounding language themselves. Moreover, the teacher is the leader, the director who provides a native-speaker-like model for imitation, so they control students’ behaviour entirely. They initiate and direct all interactions and the main technique used in this method is drilling. So no spontaneous use of the language is practiced by the students. Most of them could not transfer these dialogues into their own real-life experiences.5. The Silent Way (1960s-2000s)The Chomskyan criticism of the theories upon which the audiolingual method was founded led to an interest in not only the affective factors but also on the cognitive factors. The Silent Way is one of these innovative methods. In Fact, Caleb Gattegno, the founder of the Silent Way,devoted his thinking to the importance of problem solving approach in education.He contends that the method is constructivist and leads the learners to develop their own conceptual models of all the aspects of the language. The best way of achieving this is to help students to be experimental learners. Dr.Caleb Gattegno, originally out of Alexandria, Egypt, introduced this classroom technique wherein the teacher remains silent while pupils output the language on cue through perpetual prompting. This is the production before meaning school of thought and practice. A color-coded phonics (sound) chart called a fidel, with both vowel and consonant clusters on it, is projected onto a screen to be used simultaneously with a pointer, thus permitting the pupil to produce orally on a continuous basis in the target language, vía a sequence of phonemes or sound units. The Silent Way is characterized by its focus on discovery, creativity, problem solving and the use of accompanying materials. Richards and Rodgers (1986:99) summarized the method into three major features:The teacher and the learner work cooperatively to reach the educational desired goals. The learner is not a bench bound listener but an active contributor to the learning process.Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. The Silent Way uses colorful charts and rods which are of varying length. They are used to introduce vocabulary (colors, numbers, adjectives, verbs) and syntax (tense, comparatives, plurals, word order, etc.)Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned. The greatest strength of this method lies in its ability to draw students out orally, while the teacher "takes a back seat". This method works most effectively with round tables being used to promote small group discussion and for ample student rotation. The Silent Way truly gives students a spoken facility.Also, the indirect role of the teacher highlights the importance and the centrality of the learner who is responsible in figuring out and testing the hypotheses about how language works. The teacher’s role resides only in giving minimum repetitions and correction, remaining silent most of the times. In other words teaching is subordinated to learning. Besides, learning through problem solving fosters creativity, discovery, increase in intelligent potency and long term memory. But the method has some disadvantages as well:Modeling of correct pronunciation for students is discouraged. The learner works in isolation and communication is lacking badly in a Silent Way classroom.With minimum help on the part of the teacher, the Silent Way method may put the learning itself at stake.The material (the rods and the charts) used in this method will certainly fail to introduce all aspects of language. Other materials will have to be introduced.6. The Community Language Learning/CLL: (1960s-2000s) This creative, dynamic, and non-directive approach to language learning was first elaborated by Charles Curran. It is designed to ease the learner into gradual independence and self-confidence in the target language. This is also known as the Counseling-Learning method. Curran's approach is beyond simply a methodical pedagogy, but is rather a veritable philosophy of learning which provides profound, even quasi-theological reflections on humankind! It encourages holistic learning, personal growth, and self-development. Learning a language is not viewed necessarily as an individual accomplishment, but rather as a collective experience, something to be disseminated out into the community at large at a later stage in the second-language acquisition process. Its basic premise can be found in the acronym SARD: S stands for security (to foster the student's self-confidence), A represents attention or aggression (the former an indication of the learner's involvement, the latter their frustration level), R equals retention and reflection (what is retained is internalized and ultimately reflected upon), and D denotes discrimination (the learner can now discriminate through classifying a body of material, seeing how one concept interrelates to another previously presented structure). Student "participants" are thus allowed to register abstracted grammar both peripherally and semi-consciously.The pros and cons of this method are presented in the following table:Advantages of CLLDisdvantages of CLLIt is an attempt to overcome the threatening affective factors in EFL and ESL (The threat of the all-knowing teacher, of making blunders, etc)Translation is a difficult task. The success of the method relies largely on the translation expertise of the counselor.The councelor allow the learners to determine type of coversation and to analyze the language inductively. Sometimes he/she can be a client.The counselor/teacher can become too non directive. Students often need directions, especially in the first stage.The student-centered nature of the method can provide extrinsic motivation and capitalize on intrinsic motivation.The method relies completely on inductive learning though deductive learning is also a viable strategy of learning.Despite its weaknesses CLL is a potentially useful method for the foreign language classroom as long as teachers are willing to adapt it to their own curricular constraints. That adaptation requires a relaxing of certain aspects of the method. For example, one might avoid the initial, complete dependence stage by using CLL in an intermediate language class. Or the teacher might provide more directiveness than CLL advocates. 7. The Suggestopedia (1960s-2000s)The name of Suggestopedia comes from the words “suggestion” and “pedagogy.” Like Community Language Learning and the Silent Way Method, the Suggestopedia is an innovative method that promises great effective language learning results. This language teaching method was developed by the Bulgarian psychologist, Georgi Lozanov. Lozanov claimed that by using this method one can teach languages approximately three to five times as quickly as conventional methods.The method draws from insights from yoga and the Soviet psychology. From yoga it draws the importance of relaxation of mind for maximum retention of material. From the Soviet psychology Lozanov took the idea that all students can be taught a given subject matter at the same level of skill.This extremely esoteric, avant-garde method is subconsciously subliminal in texture. Classes are small and intensive, with a low-stress focus. Material is presented in an especially melodic and artistic way. By activating the right "creative side" of the brain, a much larger portion of the intellectual potential can be tapped, thus drawing out long-term memory. This innovative approach to language pedagogy maximizes the learners' natural holistic talents. Background classical or baroque chamber music, oftentimes accompanied with soft lights, pillows or cushions on the floor for relaxation, accentuate active and passive meditations, séances, yoga, breathing exercises leading into the "alpha state", songs for memorization purposes, therapy sessions and stream-of-consciousness catharsis in the target language with little reliance on English. The Suggestopedia has been criticized for a number of reasons. It is not a practical method as teachers face the problem of the availability of music and comfortable chairs. Also, the importance of memorization excludes any reference to comprehension and creative problem solving. In fact language is not only about the power of the mind to memorize. It’s about understanding, interacting and producing novel utterances in different unpredictable situations. And finally, little emphasis on grammar is given which leads to errors and wrong language usage.In spite of all these disadvantages, some principles of the Suggestopedia have been accepted and adapted by teachers worldwide:Through this method we learn to trust the power of the mind.We also learn that deliberately induced states of relaxation can be valuable at times in the classroom.We can also benefit from the use of music to get students sit back and relax.8. The Natural/Communicative Approach (1960s-2000s)Originally developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen, this acquisition-focused approach sees communicative competence progressing through three stages: (a) aural comprehension, (b) early speech production, and (c) speech activities, all fostering "natural" language acquisition, much as a child would learn his/her native tongue. Following an initial "silent period", comprehension should precede production in speech, as the latter should be allowed to emerge in natural stages or progressions. Lowering of the Affective Filter is of paramount importance. Only the target language is used in class now, introducing the "total immersion" concept for the very first time, with auditory input for the student becoming paramount. Errors in speech are not corrected aloud. Now enters the era of glossy textbooks, replete with cultural vignettes, glossaries, vocabulary lists, and glazed photographs. A deliberate, conscious approach to the study of grammar is considered to have only modest value in the language learning process. Pairing off of students into small groups to practice newly acquired structures becomes the major focus. Visualization activities that often times make use of a picture file, slide presentations, word games, dialogues, contests, recreational activities, empirical utterances, and realia provide situations with problem-solving tasks which might include the use of charts, maps, graphs, and advertisements, all to be performed on the spot in class. Now the classroom becomes more student-centered with the teacher allowing for students to output the language more often on their own. Formal sequencing of grammatical concepts is kept to a minimum.The most obvious advantage in communicative language teaching is that of the increase of fluency in the target language. This enables the learners to be more confident when interacting with other people and they also enjoy talking more. The communicative approach to language teaching stresses the importance of communication and interaction among the pupils and between the teacher and the pupils to learn a foreign language. Rather than repeating mechanically dialogues or grammar rules learnt by heart, the communicative approach encourages pupils to use the target language in semi-authentic contexts. This approach also values the pupils' personal experiences outside the classroom as a way to facilitate their learning in the lesson. Another good thing about the communicative approach is that it makes students speak the language even at a beginner level and they are usually enthusiastic about this. Students learn languages best by using them. If students constantly practice their language skills by talking to each other, they will gain confidence and learn more quickly. The key is to create a safe environment, where it is ok to make mistakes. One negative aspect is that the study of grammar is somewhat pushed to the side and pupils find it increasingly difficult to be aware of how a language works.Furthermore, it is difficult for the teacher alone to check the language use of every student, especially in a big class. The students are allowed to make mistakes but they need to be corrected – preferably not whilst in the middle of a conversation - by the teacher in order to improve and so as not to make the same mistake again and again. Therefore it is not helpful if there’s only one teacher for one class. Another point concerning the teacher might be that it depends on the teacher how motivating or boring the lesson will be. The teacher needs to prepare the material at home and needs to make it as motivating and creative as possible so that the students find the tasks meaningful and motivating, and are eager to communicate with each other. Chapter 2 Practical application of language teaching methodsWith such a great variety of teaching methods existing to teach foreign languages, it is sometimes difficult for an educator to choose which one to apply. In the practical part of this work eight methods discussed above will be presented in the classroom usage.The Grammar-translation MethodThe most common exercises of a class using this method are:1. translation of a Literary Passage into their native language; 2. reading Comprehension Questions (in the target language to check the understanding of the reading passage); 3. searching antonym/synonyms in the reading passage; 4. fill-in-the-blanks; 5. deductive application of grammar rules: rules are presented with examples; once students understand a rule, they are asked to apply it to some different example.Level: intermediateTopic: characterTimeTeacherPupils10 min- Now we will have a competition. We’ll have two teams: A and B. Sit with your group mates, please. Скрыть
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