1."Basel II Comprehensive version part 2: The First Pillar – Minimum Capital Requirements" (pdf). November 2005. p. 86. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs128b.pdf.
2."Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision announces higher global minimum capital standards" (pdf).
3."Press Release". Federal Reserve Bank. December 20, 2011. http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/press/bcreg/20111220a.htm. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
4."Strengthening the resilience of the banking sector" (pdf). BCBS. December 2009. p. 15. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs164.pdf. "Tier 3 will be abolished to ensure that market risks are met with the same quality of capital as credit and operational risks."
5.A new regulatory landscape // Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. September 2010. P. 2.
6.Admati Anat, H
Показать всеealthy Banking System Is the Goal: Not Profitable Banks, Financial Times, November 9, 2010.
7.Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. 2010-09-12. http://www.bis.org/press/p100912.pdf.
8.Basel II: International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards: A Revised Framework - Comprehensive Version, BCBS, Jun 2006.
9.Basel III and European Banking: Its Impact, How Banks Might Respond, and the Challenges of Implementation. EMEA Banking, McKinsey & Company, November 2010.
10.Basel III definition of capital - Frequently asked questions, BCBS, Jun 2011.
11.Basel III framework for liquidity - Frequently asked questions, BCBS, Jul 2011.
12.Basel III: A global regulatory framework for more resilient banks and banking systems. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, 2010.
13.Basel III: A global regulatory framework for more resilient banks and banking systems - revised version June 2011, BCBS, May 2011.
14.Basel III: International framework for liquidity risk measurement, standards and monitoring. Bank for international settlements, December 2010.
15.Basel III: International framework for liquidity risk measurement, standards and monitoring
16.Basel III: International framework for liquidity risk measurement, standards and monitoring, BCBS, Dec 2010.
17.Capitalisation of bank exposures to central counterparties - consultative document, BCBS, Dec 2010.
18.Douglas J. Elliott. Basel III, the Banks, and the Economy. The Brookings Institution, July 23, 2010.
19.Edward Wyatt (December 20, 2011). "Fed Proposes New Capital Rules for Banks". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/21/business/fed-proposes-new-capital-rules-for-banks.html. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
20.Enhancements to the Basel II framework, BCBS, Jul 2009.
21.Final elements of the reforms to raise the quality of regulatory capital issued by the Basel Committee, BCBS, Dec 2010.
22.Financial reform: a progress report // Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. October 2010. P. 2.
23.Fraser J., Simkins B.J. Enterprise Risk Management: Today's Leading Research and Best Practices for Tomorrow's Executives. JohnWiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2010.
24.FSF Principles for Sound Compensation Practices? BCBS, Apr 2009.
25.Global systemically important banks: Assessment methodology and the additional loss absorbency requirement - consultative document, BCBS, Jul 2011.
26.Goldstein Morris, Integrating Financial Regulatory Reform with Reform of The International Monetary System, Working Paper N 11-5, Peterson Institute for International Economics, February, 2011.
27.Goldstein Morris, Veron Nicholas, Too Big To Fail: The Transatlantic Debate, Working Paper N 11-2, Peterson Institute for International Economics, January, 2011.
28.Guidance for national authorities operating the countercyclical capital buffer, BCBS, Dec 2010.
29.Guidelines for computing capital for incremental risk in the trading book - final version, BCBS, Jul 2009.
30.Hal S. Scott (2011-06-16). "Testimony of Hal S. Scott before the Committee on Financial Services" (pdf). Committee on Financial Services, United State House of Representatives. pp. 12–13. http://financialservices.house.gov/UploadedFiles/061611scott.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
31.Hampton J. Fundamentals of enterprise risk management: how top companies assess risk, manage exposure, and seize opportunity. AMACOM, New York, 2009;
32.Jones, Huw (September 2010). "Basel rules to have little impact on economy" (pdf). http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/16/oecd-basel-idUSLDE71E23Q20110216.
33.Miles David, What Is the Optimal Leverage for a Bank? VoxEU, April 27, 2011;
34.Patrick Slovik (2012). Systematically Important Banks and Capital Regulations Challenges. OECD Economics Department Working Papers. OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/5kg0ps8cq8q6-en.
35.Philip Suttle (2011-03-03). "The Macroeconomic Implications of Basel III". Institute of International Finance. http://www.iif.com/download.php?id=dzL6w4GP8AQ=. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
36.Pillar 3 disclosure requirements for remuneration, BCBS, Jul 2011.
37.Principles for Enhancing Corporate Governance, BCBS, Oct 2010.
38.Proposal to ensure the loss absorbency of regulatory capital at the point of non-viability - consultative document, BCBS, Aug 2010.
39.Range of Methodologies for Risk and Performance Alignment of Remuneration, BCBS, Jan 2011.
40.Results of the comprehensive quantitative impact study, BCBS, Aug 2010.
41.Revisions to the Basel II market risk framework - final version, BCBS, Jul 2009.
42.Schmitz A. Die Erneuerung vorantreiben // Die Bank - Zeitschrift fur Bankpolitik und Praxis, der Artikel ist erschienen in der Ausgabe 04/2011. URL: http:// www.die-bank.de/ banking/ die-erneuerung-vorantreiben.
43.Skene L. Basel III won't save us from another banking crisis. Financial Times. September 16, 2010
44.Storbeck O. Basel III bandigt Banken nicht // Die Zeit. 29.03.2011. URL: http:// www.zeit.de/ wirtschaft/ 2011-03/ basel-banken-auflagen-studien/ seite-1.
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Each of the two approaches allows for a more adequate and balanced implementation of Basel III principles laid down in. So, the first approach would be more effective if the country has the ability to set higher standards for capital adequacy, appropriate economic reality. Use the second approach implies the harmonization of quality capital. In this area it seems necessary, strict compliance with the established quality requirements, without differentiation on national levels.
Limits the ability of the alleged risk of destruction of the single market for EU Member States to impose their own minimum capital requirements above the Basel III is not justified. The main obstacle in the evolution of the single market for financial services remains the national character of the existing bodies f
Показать всеor supervision and regulation: sustainability of banks depends on the perspective of a regulator. Productive measures to strengthen the single market for financial services could be the creation of a pan-European deposit insurance systems and launching mechanisms for resolving problems11.
Decisions taken by the EU Finance Ministers fail to adequately address the problems that provoked the crisis, and hamper resolution of the debt crisis in some European countries. However, it is possible that final rules on bank capital, approved by the European Parliament, will include a number of weighted changes.
In Basel III, a new concept – "the root tier 1 capital", as well as a clarification that tier 1 capital consists of two elements. Capital's primary task is to pay damages under the Bank (prior to bankruptcy and liquidation), therefore it is necessary to ensure stock that will be available to the Bank for payment of damages without intervention investors. The permanence and stability of the capital constituted guarantees its availability in times of financial crisis, so should not be dated. Otherwise, investors may return the paper issued by the Bank at a time when the Bank is less than the total available funds. The principles underlying the key features of the capital are set out in table 2. 2 to tier 1 instruments in Basel III.
The minimum size of the capital base that can only consist of ordinary shares corresponding to reserves and retained earnings, should encourage banks to restrict the issuance of preferred shares. Retained earnings remains one of the main sources of root capital. Hybrid instruments included in Basel II will be excluded, as they usually have fixed dividends/payments and final term of repayment. Limitation of dividend payments for instruments included in tier 1 capital and additional capital of second level, should not be permanent, as this can interfere with the recapitalization of banks, giving false promises to investors.
Capital buffer (buffer capital protection) is designed to cover losses during periods of financial and economic tensions. It must relate exclusively to the root capital. Banks, lacking the buffer of capital, will be restricted to payments of dividends and bonuses. This approach will increase the resilience of banks to negative changes in the market.
The introduction of the concept of "capital buffer" implies that banks should build up a reserve of capital during favourable periods, which can be used in cases of damages. This approach helps reduce the procyclical effect. Savings can be realized by reducing the dividend, buyback and the payment of bonuses to employees. As an alternative to the "conservation" of the generated inside the capital banks can also attract new funds into the capital from the private sector. The balance between these options to be determined by the banks.
A buffer of capital protection is set at 2.5% and consists of a root capital, which is identified by the regulator to minimum capital requirements. Root tier 1 capital must first be used to meet the minimum requirements (including 6% for tier 1 and 8% for the total capital), only then the rest can be inserted into a buffer of capital protection. For example, a bank with a level of 8% of regulatory capital and without additional tier 1 or tier 2 capital would be consistent with the minimum requirements, but would have a level capital protection buffer 0% and would have to enter 100% restriction on the allocation of capital.
Restrictions on payments of profits imposed on banks when their capital cushion does not comply with the rules will increase as the buffer protecting capital. Under the proposed approach, the restrictions imposed on banks with capital protection, buffer levels close to 2.5% will be minimal. Banks should be able to exercise normal business when their capital cushion fell as a result. Limitations are imposed only in respect of payments of profit, but not with respect to the operations of the Bank12.
For some banks, more complex formulas for calculating assets, weighted according to risk, will significantly reduce the amount of regulatory capital. This may be especially true for the retail segment. Nevertheless, savings on regulatory capital reduction may not happen due to coefficients gearing and borrowed money, which will be calculated in accordance with the requirements of Basel III. However, banks can save on the cost of raising funds. For similar projects the typical benefits of rising profits before tax, may be obtained by increasing the margin to 2-3% depending on the composition of the Bank's assets. These advantages stem from13:
1. More efficient management of bad debts by using sensitive instruments, risk rating, which can improve the quality of forecasting of default and lower the amount of bad loans.
2. risk-based Pricing with rates, adjusted for risk, which allows the Bank to increase profitability by differentiation of credit risk across the customer base.
3. optimisation of operating costs through more efficient operating processes and systems as well as systems and processes for risk management; minimization of errors based on judgment, through integration of rating models.
You can significantly increase your profits by reducing capital adequacy requirements, the relative percentage of profits can vary depending on the composition of the Bank's assets. For retail banks, the figure could be as high as 20%, which would free up capital for other asset classes14.
For large diversified banks the costs of transition to use of improved approaches can range from 20 to 30 million dollars. United States until 3-4 years. This is due mainly to the new requirements to data collection, risk management and reporting for the IT systems and processes. 60-65% of the approximately cost of the introduction of improved approaches will account for investment in an IT related to credit risk transfer and data entry tools and new processes, and about a 15-20% off-grid construction will be linked to the development of rating models15.
In addition to the pilot, apply advanced approaches banks may want to 30-40 major banks. This happens because the banks-competitors (pilot banks) are already using this approach, we were able to observe that in almost all countries during their transition to the capital adequacy requirements under the Basel II agreement.
Report to participate in the international forum «Michelin Challenge Bibendum-2011» (Michelin Challenge Bibendum-2011) 17-22 May 2011 Berlin, Germany
The Forum was held from 17 to 22 May. The event recognized by the principal world forum to support automobile traffic. According to the program are tested and evaluated by the technical characteristics of the vehicles, and passes the test driving to measure progress in the field of automobiles, energy, and technology. Also during the event, held a debate of experts, conferences and forums attended by leading political and economic figures.
The Forum took the area 300.000 m² (50.000 m2 of which occurred in the exhibition area) and 15 km of testing. The number of participating vehicles reached the 200 machines. Exhibition area consisted of 75 booths of manufacturers of cars and components, engineering research and educational institutions.
In panel events attracted around 250 politicians, experts and researchers. A day for the media event has at least 650 journalists and open days, about 6000 visitors.
The exhibition-Forum of the Michelin Challenge Bibendum is a world-class event in the field of sustainable development of mobility, the world's only forum bringing together manufacturers of cars, trucks, equipment, energy suppliers, representatives of universities and research institutions, eminent political personalities, representatives of non-governmental organizations to develop a common vision of development of the transport industry is more environmentally friendly and safe.
Challenges for the future development of road traffic have thought through with various stakeholders: Government, energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers, researchers. Only by working together, they can provide long-term solutions to ensure freedom of movement in the future.
Exposition Bauman. Bauman was posted on the stand area of 10 m2. Posters, handouts, the exhibits were given the opportunity to get a brief idea about the University, to represent it on the international stage.
Two laptops, continuously display the videos, presentations and illustrative row allowed more fully demonstrate all the features of development of CAD-systems.
To reflect the profile of the University were shown examples of research students, affecting various interdisciplinary areas, but entirely appropriate subjects.
1. "Basel II Comprehensive version part 2: The First Pillar – Minimum Capital Requirements" (pdf). November 2005. p. 86. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs128b.pdf.
2. "Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision announces higher global minimum capital standards" (pdf).
3. "Press Release". Federal Reserve Bank. December 20, 2011. http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/press/bcreg/20111220a.htm. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
4. "Strengthening the resilience of the banking sector" (pdf). BCBS. December 2009. p. 15. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs164.pdf. "Tier 3 will be abolished to ensure that market risks are met with the same quality of capital as credit and operational risks." Скрыть
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