Прием лексического повтора в коротком английском рассказе
Lexical stylistic device of repetition in English short stories
Among lexical stylistic devices that are used to add expressiveness to the literary works repetition is one of the most effective stylistic strategies. Though repeating is often considered boring, it can wake the reader up and help them to focus on a key idea if used with some stylistic purpose.
A lot of classical authors practiced lexical repetition in short stories to make them more attractive and interesting to the reader, and namely Ray Bradbury, Ernest Hemingway, O’Henry, Virginia Woolf. The works of these writers will be taken for stylistic analysis in this paper.
Short stories of Ray Bradbury have always been popular with various age groups because they are full of different stylistic devices that make reading captiv
Показать всеating and emotional. The author employs lexical repetition quite often, especially anaphora, epizeuxis and simple repetitions for emphasis.
The two stories - “All in a Summer Day” and “The Day It Rained Forever” - are taken for analysis from his collection of short stories “A Medicine For Melancholy” written in 1959. This collection represents human psychology with each story focused on some detail or feature of human nature. The scenes vary from an ordinary flat to some planet, from remote future to the present days.
In “All Summer in a Day” the events are futuristic and take place at some school located in the underground city of the planet Venus. The rocket men and women have come to a raining world of Venus to set up civilization. Скрыть
Список использованных источников
1.Винокур Т.Г. Закономерности стилистического использования языковых единиц. — М., 1980.
2.Хемингуэй Э. Собрание сочинений (в 4 т), т.1 // Художественная литература, М., 1968.
3.Galperin I. An Essay in Stylistics Analysis. — M., 1968.
4.O’Henry 41 Stories // Издательство: Penguin, 2007. 430c.
Like a girl, they both thought wildly, like a little girl putting her hands out of a window to feel what? Why, of course, of course! To feel the rain. (diacope and epizeuxis)
She played and it wasn't a tune they knew at all, but it was a tune they had heard a thousand times in their long lives, words or not, melody or not. (simple repetition and epiphora)
She played and each time her fingers moved, the rain fell pattering through the dark hotel. The rain fell cool at the open windows and the rain rinsed down the baked floorboards of the porch. The rain fell on the rooftop and fell on hissing sand, it fell on rusted car and empty stable and dead cactus in the yard. (anaphora)
It was the sound of Mr. Premley. Mr. Premley, in his room, applauding. (anadiplosis)
The sound of the harp playi
Показать всеng, the sound of the cool water falling every night and every night of their lives, after this. No spraying the roof with the garden hose now, any more. Only sit on the porch or lie in your night bed and hear the falling... the falling... the falling.... (simple repetition)
The harp, the harp. Listen, listen! (epizeuxis)
Talking about the style of writing in terms of lexical repetition, one can conclude that the most frequent devices Ray Bradbury employs in these two short stories are simple repetition and epizeuxis. The former is used to attract the reader’s attention to the key words and important detail, the latter – mostly in irect speech of the characters to render their feelings and emotional state.
Another author whose works are full of different stylistic devices (and repetition in particular) is Ernest Hemingway. In his masterpieces he employs different stylistic devices to get the key idea and to draw the reader’s attention to the most important detail. The story under analysis – “Cat in the Rain” – is just one episode from the life of a happy American couple travelling around Europe. Though their happiness, as it turns out, is quite questionable.
The description of the hotel at the very beginning of the story starts with anadiplosis:
“They did not know any of the people they passed on the stairs on their way to and from their room. Their room was on the second floor facing the sea.”
The author deliberately employs this device to emphasize that the couple spend most of the time in the room showing no interest in anything else. One more anadiplosis is used to describe the rain:
“It was raining. The rain dripped from the palm trees.”
This repetition not only describes the weather, but show that it is not just a rain but a shower. Moreover, the rain embodies the general tone of the story.
E.Hemingway also uses lexical repetition to characterize the main characters. Thus in the dialogue between the man and the woman the husband’s description contains simple repetitions like “her husband offered from the bed”, “the husband went on reading, lying propped up with the two pillows at the foot of the bed”. They are all about his lying position in the room which underlines that nothing can make him out of bed, even the fact that his wife is going outside in the downpour to find their cat.
No wonder that the wife soon falls for the proprietor of the hotel who is totally different from her husband, George. E. Hemingway employs anaphora several times. The author's object in employing this stylistic device is quite evident - to show that the woman likes everything in this man. The repetition of the subject and predicate – the main parts of the sentence – enhances this effect:
“The wife liked him. She liked the deadly serious way he received any complaints. She liked his dignity. She liked the way he wanted to serve her. She liked the way he felt about being a hotel-keeper. She liked his old, heavy face and big hands».
The proprietor is the only person who can understand her. He helps to reveal that she wants another life. In this story the cat seems the key character and the embodiment of the life which the woman would like to have. On the one hand, a homeless cat is very similar to her – it is also lost and wants another life. On the other, the cat symbolizes comfort, security, home. That’s why E. Hemingway repeats “cat” a lot:
"There was a cat," said the American girl.
"A cat?" the maid laughed. "A cat in the rain?"
The woman wants this cat as all costs, she is ready to go outside in the heavy rain to get it. To convey the desire of the woman to have the cat, to get new life where she would be understood and to describe it with great intensity, the author uses anaphora a lot:
“I wanted it so much,” she said. “I don't know why 1 wanted it so much. I wanted that poor kitty. It isn't any fun to be a poor kitty out in the rain.”
“And I want to eat at a table with my own silver and I want candles. And I want it to be spring and I want to brush my hair out in front of a mirror and I want a kitty and I want some new clothes.”
“Anyway, I want a cat,” she said, “I want a cat. I want a cat now. If I can't have long hair or any fun, I can have a cat”.
By repeating “I want” the author emphasizes how important it is for a woman to have a cat and how her real life is different from the one she wants to have. Moreover, the last anaphora reveals that the woman understands it’s just a dream. The cat is the only thing which she really can have. Besides, the author doesn’t name the woman – never in the text. It also shows that her life is impersonal, she doesn’t have any individuality, even the name.
E. Hemingway does not employ epithets, metaphors, hyperboles which are characteristic of the works of art. His style is quite dry and laconic, realistic and brief but at the same time by lexical repetition he manages to produce powerful effect on the reader and give vivid stylistic colouring to the narration.
Another short story by this writer that is under analysis is "A Canary for One". The story is very simple and common but the author makes the narration a real work of art.
It begins with the description of the train going to Paris and the passengers in it. The main characters are the American lady with her canary, and a man with his wife. They are travelling to Paris in the same compartment and just have a conversation during the trip. Finally they reach their destination.
The protagonist of the story – the American lady, like the woman in “Cat in the Rain”, do not have a name as it’s unnecessary. In the whole story there are no names at all. The reader can guess that she has no husband but she has a daughter who was deeply in love with a Swiss fellow, but it turned out they parted.
The American lady kept on saying that American men make the best husbands. Probably, it was she who didn’t let her daughter marry her Swiss boyfriend, as he belonged to the “wrong” nationality, he was not American. The little canary with its beautiful singing was a present for the girl and a solace of her sufferings and torments.
From the very beginning the reader can find some examples of lexical repetition and anaphora to show the triviality and hackney course of the day and of the lady’s views on life. Like a real American she is totally practical, farsighted and it makes sleep difficult:
It was very hot in the train and it was very hot in the lit salon compartment. There was no breeze came through the open window. The American lady pulled the window-blind down and there was no more sea, even occasionally. On the other side there was glass, then the corridor, then an open window, and outside the window were dusty trees and an oiled road and flat fields of grapes, with gray-stone hills behind them.
In the night the American lady lay without sleeping because the train was a rapid and went very fast and she was afraid of the speed in the night. The American lady's bed was the one next to the window. The canary from Palermo, a cloth spread over his cage, was out of the draft in the corridor that went into the compartment wash-room. There was a blue light outside the compartment, and all night the train went very fast and the American lady lay awake and waited for a wreck.
Then the American lady starts a conversation with the couple, telling them her daughter’s story. By using anaphora “she+Verb” E. Hemingway emphasizes that the lady doesn’t understand her daughter’s sorrow or even try to understand. She just takes for granted the fact that the daughter must marry an American
"She wouldn't eat anything and she wouldn't sleep at all. I've tried so very hard, but she doesn't seem to take an interest in anything. She doesn't care about things. I couldn't have her marrying a foreigner.”
After discussing other things she gets back to her main point again:
“Americans make the best husbands,” the American lady said to my wife. I was getting down the bags. "American men are the only men in the world to marry.”
The author repeats the phrase to emphasize how important it is for an American lady to have her daughter forget the Swiss. When the wife of the narrator and the lady begin to talk about the place Vevey where the daughter met the Swiss, the lady again returns to the story of her daughter. She seems not to listen to the speaker which is clearly seen by constant repetitions:
“Were you really? That must have been lovely. I had no idea, of course, that she'd fall in love with him.”
“It was a very lovely place,” said my wife. Скрыть
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