Тypes of employment discrimination and specifics of their legal regulation
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION AND THEIR LAW PROTECTION
SPECIFIC OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION AND ITS LEGAL REGULATION
1.Employee Handbook, Southwest Library System, 2002
2.Employment discrimination laws of the USA - www.finduslaw.com
3.European Union law portal - www.eur-lex.europa.eu
4.The Canadian Human Rights Commission - www.chrc-ccdp.ca
5.U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission - www.eeoc.gov
These are the most common types of employment discrimination prohibited by law in most developed countries.
Racial discrimination occurs when someone is treated less fairly than someone else in a similar situation because of their race, color, descent or national or ethnic origin. It is against the law to discriminate when seeking employment, training, promotion, equal pay or conditions of employment. Most developed countries have specialized racial discrimination laws to prohibit this type of discrimination. These are Civil Rights Act of 1991 in the USA4, Race Relations Act 1976 amended by the Race Relations Amendment Act 2000 in the United Kingdom, Racial and Religious Tolerance Act 2001 in Australia, Canadian Employment Equity Act in Canada, General Equal Treatm
Показать всеent Act of 2006 in Germany5.
Discrimination of people with disabilities
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, a number of countries have passed laws aimed at reducing discrimination against people with disabilities. These laws have begun to appear as the notion of civil rights has become more influential globally, and follow other forms of anti-discrimination and equal opportunity legislation aimed at preventing racial discrimination and sexism which began to emerge in the second half of the 20th century6.
In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act provides guidelines for providing wheelchair access for public institutions. According to European Union Directive 2000/43/EC on Anti-discrimination a person cannot be denied a job because of a disability that does not affect job performance or that can be accommodated. In Canada people with disabilities are protected by Ontarians with Disabilities Act, in Australia – by Disability Discrimination Act 1992.
Age employment discrimination can occur in different ways such as discrimination in hiring and wages; statements or specifications in job notices or advertisements of age preference and limitations; denial of benefits to older employees etc.
In the United States, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits employment discrimination nationwide based on age with respect to employees 40 years of age or older. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act also addresses the difficulty older workers face in obtaining new employment after being displaced from their jobs, arbitrary age limits7.
Discrimination based on gender
Though what constitutes gender discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries.
European employees are protected from gender-based discrimination by EU Directive 2006/54/EC, American employees – by the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and Employment Non-Discrimination Act. General Equal Treatment Act of 2006 in Germany, Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 in Australia and Canadian Employment Equity Act also prohibit discrimination based on gender. Скрыть
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