Chapter 1. The ways that new words come into English
1.1 Words from other languages: loanwords
1.2 New words
1.3 Word formation processes
Chapter 2. The Internet as the main source of creating and spreading of new words
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We will analyse the Internet as the source of the vocabulary enrichment in a separate chapter, due to its great influence on the all spheres of today’s life.
Finance has also launched numerous new words, such as:
dead cat bounce technical informal a situation in which the price of shares rises a small amount after a large fall, sometimes before falling further;
stealth tax BrE informal a tax that you pay on something that you buy rather than tax you pay directly to the government, and which you are less aware of paying than, for example, direct tax on your income.
Sometimes finance and computers come together, as with:
dot-com informal relating to a person or company whose business is done using the Internet or involves the Internet: a dot-com company | dot-com millionaires;
Показать всеoney that can be used to buy things on the Internet, but that does not exist in a physical form or belong to any particular country.
New words are needed for new things, and many have come from science, technology, and business. To take just a few examples - from computers and the Internet - online auction, PDA or personal digital assistant, access provider, animatronics, cookie, MP3; from medicine and biological science - biologically engineered, DNA profiling, genetically modified; from the world of business - benchmark, best practice, SOHO (small office/home office), and so on.
1.3 Word formation processes
New words are not totally new. The vast majority are made up out of existing components. The same word-formation processes recur around the globe, though each language has its own particular favourites.
New words are typically placed in inverted commas, when they are first introduced, as in “The annual fee allows unlimited entry to district parks for your dog for a year and a case of 100 'pooper-scoopers”, a pooper-scooper being a tool for the removal of a dog's solid waste. As a word becomes accepted, these inverted commas are eventually dropped.
The first class of new words are compounds. In English, compounding has been the most prolific process throughout the 20th century. This consists simply of putting words together. Sometimes these remain as two words. Recent examples include airport fiction (books, especially ones that are not very serious, that people buy at airports to read while they are travelling on planes) and hot desk (a desk which is used by different workers on different days, instead of by the same worker every day).
At other times, the two parts are joined into a single new word, for example jobseeker (someone who is trying to find a job), and webhead (someone who uses the Internet a lot, especially in a skilful way). Sometimes the two parts are linked by a hyphen, as in walk-in, a recent adjective that describes a place to which you can go without an appointment, as in walk-in clinic.
The second way of the formation of new words is by adding affixes. Affixation is another common method of forming new words. An affix is an additional part of a word added at the beginning (prefix) or end of the word (suffix).
Adding an ending to an existing word continues to produce many new words in English. For example, -iac has been added to the word brain to created the recent new word brainiac (informal humorous someone who spends a lot of time studying and thinking about complicated ideas, but who is often unable to communicate with people in ordinary social situations: Electrical engineering is the perfect career for a brainiac like him). This word is also used as an adjective: The company is trying to change its brainiac image.
Many new words have also been created through the addition of the suffix -ization, as in dollarization (a situation in which countries outside the US want to use the dollar rather than their own country's money) or globalization (the process by which countries all over the world become connected, especially because large companies are doing business in many different countries). This is, in fact, two suffixes combined, -ize as in globalize, then with an added -ation.
Another increasingly popular suffix is -land, as in adland (the activity or business of advertising, considered as a whole: Anything that grabs your attention is good in adland) and cyberland (activity that involves the Internet and the people who use it).
Prefixes have become more widespread recently. Cyber- is a good example of a prefix which has been used to create a range of new words (originally meaning 'computer', now often meaning 'to do with the Internet'). For example cybercafé, cybercrime, cyberforensics, cyberfraud (the illegal act of deceiving people on the Internet in order to gain money, power etc), cyberland, cyberporn (sexual images, films etc shown on the Internet).
And dozens of new words formed by prefixes relate to size, both large size and very small size, such as micro-, super-, and multi-, as in:
microbrewery a small company that makes only a small quantities of beer, and often has a restaurant where its beer is served;
microengineering the activity of designing structures and machines that are extremely small;
micromanage to organize and control all the details of other people's work in a way that they find annoying: Professors warned that students will suffer if the state legislature tries to micromanage public education;
supersize AmE a supersize drink or meal in a fast-food restaurant is the largest size that the restaurant serves;
multi-tasking 1 a computer's ability to do more than one job at a time 2 the ability to do different types of work at the same time.
These prefixes mostly have clear meanings. But suffixes too may have meanings: -ism is a suffix which has acquired a more specific meaning in recent years, alongside -ist. At one time, its meaning was fairly neutral, as in pacifism (the belief that all wars and all forms of violence are wrong). But gradually -ism has taken on a feeling of disapproval: ageism is “unfair treatment of people because they are old”, and someone who is prejudiced in this way is an ageist. Similarly, lookist (adj) is unfairly deciding to like or not like someone by considering only the way they look, their weight, their clothes etc'. The -ism is lookism, and the person who discriminates is a lookist.
Another productive way is conversion (change of word class). A variety of other word formation processes exist, which sometimes suddenly erupt in dozens of new words and phrases. Conversion, the change of a word from one word class (part of speech) to another is very common in today's English. It is easy for a language with few word endings to use this process, as with to bookmark (a verb formed from a noun) meaning “to save the address of a page on the Internet, so that you can find it again easily”; to ramp or to ramp something up (a verb formed from a noun), meaning “to try to persuade people that a company's shares are worth more than they really are”; and to sample (a verb formed from a noun) is “to use a small part of a song from a CD or record in a new song”.
New words can alo be created by the means of acronyms and abbreviations. Acronyms, initial letters of words, have been important for some time, and abbreviations such as RIP (“Rest in Peace”, used on tombstones and in speech about someone who is dead) and asap (“as soon as possible”) are widely known and used. Some of these acronyms become accepted as full words, such as laser (“light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation”, meaning a device that can emit an intense beam of light), which is pronounced as a word (leize). Recently, acronyms and abbreviations have grown increasingly frequent, at least among teenagers and young adults, partly because of mobile phones, or cell phones, which can also send text messages, but which have very limited space on their screens. So brief message abbreviations are becoming common, such as IMHO (“in my humble opinion”) and CUL (“see you later”) - though caution is needed. Some abbreviations are ambiguous: LOL could mean either “Lots of love” or “Laughing out loud”!
Another tendency that received a wide-spreading recently is blending. Two words combined into one are known as blends (a term now more usual than the older one, portmanteau words, sometimes still used to describe this happening). The blend is a type of word formation which has become popular in English this century and which now accounts for a significant proportion of new words, particularly those deriving from commercial trade names or advertising, those which have a technical or scientific link, or which are meant facetiously.
A blend is any word which is formed by fusing together elements from two other words and whose meaning shares or combines the meanings of the source words. The elements are normally the beginning of one and the end of the other. An example is Oxbridge, which is formed by putting together the first part of Oxford and the last part of Cambridge to form a new inclusive term for both universities (Camford also exists, but it’s much less common).
A few blends have become an accepted part of English, such as brunch, a mixture of breakfast and lunch, and some of them are intentionally humorous. For example:
netizen slang someone who uses the Internet, especially someone who uses it in a responsible way. This word comes from a combination of the words “net”, meaning “the Internet”, and “citizen”: China and India will soon have far larger numbers of netizens than any Western nation;
netiquette informal the commonly accepted rules for polite behaviour when communicating with other people on the Internet: Netiquette says that you don't use all capital letters in an e-mail, because that shows you are angry.
The word imagineer, from “imagination” and “engineer”, means someone who has a lot of new ideas, and who is also able to use these ideas to do practical things.
An older term for the result of this technique is portmanteau word, which was coined by Lewis Carroll in Alice Through the Looking Glass in 1872 to explain some of the words he made up in the nonsense poem Jabberwocky: “Well “slithy” means “lithe and slimy” ... you see it’s like a portmanteau — there are two meanings packed up into one word”. This term is much less comprehensible to us now that the literal sense of portmanteau has gone out of use. It derives from the French term for a large stiff carrying case for clothes, which is hinged in the middle so that it falls open into two halves. Though many of Carroll’s inventions didn’t survive, a couple have become part of the language: galumph (gallop + triumph), and chortle (chuckle + snort). His term mimsy (flimsy + miserable) already existed in the language, but his re-definition of it certainly affected the sense.
A few such terms existed before Carroll made his inspired series of inventions: anecdotage (anecdote combined with dotage to suggest a garrulous old age, first recorded in 1823); squirl (a blend of squiggle and whirl to describe a flourish, as in handwriting, from 1843); snivelization, coined by Herman Melville in 1849 from snivel and civilisation as a term for “civilisation considered derisively as a cause of anxiety or plaintiveness”; squdge (squash + pudge) dates from 1870. Some writers have suggested that there may be older examples in the language: for example, bash may be a blend of bang and smash and clash of clang and crash, but most of the candidate words are so ancient that their origins are obscure.
It is very noticeable that a fashion for such formations began in the 1890s, perhaps influenced by Carroll, though this could equally well be accounted for by other factors leading to an increased rate of word formation. As examples: electrocute (a blend of electricity and execute) first appeared in 1889; prissy (blending prim and sissy) was coined about 1895; brunch (breakfast taken nearly at lunchtime), first recorded in 1896; travelogue (travel + monologue), 1903; mingy (mean and stingy), from 1911; scientifiction (invented by Hugo Gernsback in 1916 as a blend of science and fiction, thankfully now obsolete); motel (a motor hotel, originally a trade name from 1925); sexpert (an expert on sex, 1924); sexational (sex + sensational, 1925); ambisextrous (a coinage from ambidextrous and sex dating from 1929 which has achieved a modest continuing circulation); Jacobethan (Jacobean + Elizabethan, invented by John Betjeman in 1933); guesstimate (guess + estimate, dating from 1936); sexploitation (the exploitation of sex in films, first used about 1942 and which was the model for blaxploitation in the early seventies).
The modern usage of blend as a technical term among dictionary makers is quite strict and many words which might be thought to be blends, such as keypad, paintball or townhouse, are instead regarded as compounds because the elements being put together are words in their own right. Terms like megastore or hypertext are also called compounds, because they are combinations of free-standing words with prefixes or suffixes. So faction is a blend, because it combines parts of the words fact and fiction into one, but factoid, “a spurious or questionable fact”, is not a blend but a compound because the second element is a suffix and does not derive from some word which happens to end in –oid. Some other formations — examples are kidvid and nicad — are frequently called clipped compounds rather than blends because the combining elements both come from the beginnings of words (kid + video, nickel + cadmium), rather than the beginning of one and the end of another.
The terminology is complicated by a subsidiary process in which blends can give rise to new prefixes and suffixes which then affect the classification of later creations. An early example is the word motorcade, formed as a blend of motor and cavalcade, which created a new suffix –cade that has been used in words like aerocade, aquacade and even camelcade and tractorcade. More recent examples of such formations are taken to be compounds with this suffix, rather than blends with cavalcade. Similarly, the prefix info– deriving from information has become heavily used in terms such as infoglut, infobahn, infodump and infonaut; it is difficult to argue that all these are blends. Other examples are cyber– (created from cybernetics, see the article Cyberplague), –thon (from marathon, used first in telethon and now in nonce-words like preachathon, operathon and stripperthon); –gate (from Watergate, see Newspapergate); mini–, maxi– and others.
A number of blends describe a language which has been heavily influenced by English: Franglais was an early example (French which has become corrupted by the influx of English words such as le weekend), Spanglish is Latin American Spanish containing English expressions like el gasfitter; Japlish is Japanese in which English words such as salaryman are imported. Other examples are Swedlish, Anglicaans, Wenglish (Welsh + English), mockney, a form of mock Cockney employed particularly by some British pop stars, and Texican (Texas plus Mexican). In another aspect, we have slanguage, a blend of slang and language.
Many blends have been created in recent years as names for new forms of exercise regimes, many of them trade names: Aquarobics, Callanetics (the first name of Callan Pinckney blended with athletics, probably after the model of callisthenics), Jazzercise (jazz + exercise), aquacise, dancercise, sexercise, and slimnastics. Among sports we have terms like parascending (parachute + ascending) and surfari, and nonce adjectives such as sportsational or swimsational which blend words with the last element of sensational.
The media, advertising and show business have been responsible for an especially large crop: advertorial (an advertisement written as though it were an editorial); docutainment (a documentary written as entertainment, with variable felicity concerning actual events), which is also known as a dramadoc, from dramatised documentary, though this is a clipped compound, not a blend); an infomercial is a television commercial in the form of an information announcement; infotainment is a blend, in reality as well as etymology, of information and entertainment; a magalogue is a cross between a magazine and a catalogue; a televangelist is a television evangelist. From the entertainment field we have animatronics (a blend of animated and electronics), camcorder (camera + recorder), rockumentary (a rock documentary) and, for a while in Britain, squarial (a square aerial, used to receive satellite television signals). There have been a number of facetitious blends based on the long-standing litterati: the glitterati are glittering show-biz stars; the soccerati are soccer stars and their celebrity supporters; the digerati are the computing elite leading the information technology revolution; the ligerati is the group which turns up at all the best parties without going through the formality of being invited (based on lig, a dialect term meaning “to idle or lie about” which became fashionable in British media circles in the eighties in the sense of “freeload” or “gatecrash”) — again, it can be argued that –ati has turned into a plural suffix and that recent coinages should be called compounds rather than blends.
Politics and the economy have a fair representation in the list. We have Clintonomics, Reaganomics, and Rogernomics which all combine the name of a political figure with the word economics. In similar vein are stagflation, a near-disastrous combination of stagnation and inflation, and slumpflation (slump + inflation). Politics also gave Britain the humorous formation beerage for ennobled leaders of the drinks trade (beer + peerage), but it never really caught on. The US has punning blends like Californicate. Скрыть
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