The possible ways of Teacher׳s professional development.
Chapter 1. Objectives, methods and stages of teacher professional development
1.1. Teacher professional competence, objectives and stages of its development
1.2. Methods and forms of teacher professional development
Chapter 1 Conclusion
Chapter 2. Study of potential of pedagogical Internet resources for teacher professional development
Chapter 2 conclusion
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3. Structuring and preparing the material for effective presentation;
4. Presentation of the material.
Work of creative teams which unite teachers of a certain subject group.
Teacher trainings which are scheduled and has a certain objective. The training can pursue different goals – for example, developing certain personal quality or certain skill. The training can take form in a business game, group work, collective solving of a creative task. Trainings provide the opportunity to develop team work, to analyze the work of each other, to look at the familiar problem from different angles.
A British website http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/ offers several more ways of teacher professional self-education:
Online communities. These may include an interactive virtual conference such as th
Показать всеe annual IATEFL online conferences sponsored by the British Council, or the blogs on the TeachingEnglish website, or other forums and discussion boards set up to encourage participation around ELT topics by teachers from all over the world.
Talking informally. Joining other teachers in the staffroom discussing their next lesson or the materials they are using is one of the easiest and most effective ways of developing, especially if you borrow the ideas and try them out in your own classes.
Individual reading. Another easy way to learn that can include internet materials and journals as well as actual books, which can be expensive and difficult to obtain in some parts of the world. We can read anywhere in any short piece of snatched free time.
Reading groups. While reading is done individually, what is learnt can be formalised in discussion in a reading group. Set a text to read and come together with colleagues a few weeks later to discuss its content. So much can be learnt through sharing of impressions and discussing issues the reading material raises.
Programmed action research. You may be lucky enough to have a head of department or principal who wants research results which shed light on what is going on in his or her institution, and is prepared to provide time for teachers to provide the evidence. This is one interpretation of programmed action research, though there are lots of others, and teachers cannot help but learn from the experience and the results.
Individual action research. Similar to the above, but teacher-directed and not ‘imposed’. Often very small scale, nevertheless so much can be learnt from studying your students or yourself in the classroom, and there is a huge range of aspects of teaching which you can put under an action research microscope.
Giving sessions. This can range from a small in-school meeting where teaching ideas are shared right through to a session at a large international conference. All conference speakers started small and all teachers have something to say. This is a particularly effective way to develop due to the planning and research which takes place before the session as well as the discussion and feedback which it provokes.
Writing. Similar to the above, writing ranges from short articles right through to books. Keeping a diary and reflecting on your teaching is a good way to start and there are plenty of models out there to learn from, while the preparation and research necessary teaches you as much as the writing and rewriting itself.
On account of the modern requirements one can define the main directions of teacher professional development:
Scientific research work;
Innovative work, introducing the new teaching techniques to the everyday teaching process;
Using IT in teaching process.
These directions are connected with each other and often work together as the integral parts of each other.
Teacher scientific research work is aimed at improving teachers’ theoretical knowledge. Scientific research provides the opportunity to develop teacher’s intellect and creativity, his professional skills. Creative groups in different educational institutions study, apply and analyze innovative methods and approaches of teaching. The results of such work can be presented at conferences, master-classes, seminars and exhibitions. One of the most important fields of sharing this experience is the Internet. A lot of sites offer place for publication teachers’ articles, also teachers can discuss their projects at forums and even join the online lessons and conferences. The example of such online journal is http://www.eidos.ru, which publishes articles written by modern scientists and teachers from schools all over Russia. The site provides materials on such burning topics as heuristic teaching, new educational standards and tendencies, distance learning, effective teaching techniques and others.
This direction is closely connected with the development of computer literacy of teachers. Professional development in the modern world is impossible without skillful use of computers and the Internet. Although the need for teachers who are computer literate is recognized, the best methods of producing such teachers and the definition of computer literacy are still controversial. A definition of computer literacy is developed that is broad enough to apply to educators in general, but which leaves room for specificity for particular situations and content areas. The following general domains that comprise computer literacy for all educators are addressed: (1) general computer operations; (2) software, including computer managed instruction, computer assisted instruction, and programing languages; (3) software issues; and (4) hardware.
Principles and rules of IT usage in classroom have been formulated and systematized, the advantages and disadvantages of computer-managed instruction have been outlined, but still there is the need in computer literate teachers in modern Russian schools.
Informational technologies provide effective information storage and search. The Internet is the largest source of knowledge on methodology, teaching techniques, different sides of the school subjects. Special multimedia and programs help to solve such problems as quick and effective knowledge acquisition control, students’ motivation rising, psychological testing and others. The conclusion is that information technology facilitates different sides of teacher’s professional life and development and that is why should not be neglected.
E.Solovova defines information competence as the ability of effective searching, analyzing, selecting and using the information. Computer literacy is the base of information competence. In her opinion, there are three levels of development of the teacher’s information competence:
1) Elementary – the teacher has the basis of computer knowledge and the ability of using it, but does it unwillingly and not systematically.
2) Functional – the teacher uses software products and Internet technologies properly but limited by one or several tasks.
3) Systematical – the teacher uses wide range of computer programs and media freely, widely, properly and systematically in many spheres of his professional life5.
The following scheme of effective computer technologies applying at schools is offered by Russian scientists:
Organizing the school documentation into electronic form;
Creating the electronic base of tasks organized by subjects, topics and levels;
Using online project work;
Using electronic textbooks and other electronic sources for students self-guided work;
Using the electronic means of testing and control.
Also there is the following scheme of applying the Internet technologies at school:
Using the Internet sources in class;
Providing the connection between school, family and society;
Providing the methodological information for teachers;
Providing the information for different self-guided activities of students;
Providing the information for effective school management.
The teacher’s ability to find the information quickly, analyze it correctly and use it effectively is one of the essential conditions of his professional and personal growth.
Today a large variety of computer literacy courses can be found almost in every large city in Russia. Teacher professional development, including computer literacy, is the essential part of the national project “Education”. Schools are provided with computers and equipment, and teachers are trained to use them effectively.
Teachers of all subjects can benefit from the Internet, but for the teachers of English the range of opportunities is especially large, as they can use not only Russian, but also foreign sources effectively. There are variety of sites for language teachers providing online and printable activities, tests, texts, games etc. Such sites as http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/, http://www.teachit.co.uk/ and many others provide teachers with articles on teaching theory, lesson plans, classroom activities and other ideas for English lessons.
As teachers don’t work independently, they are integral parts of educational environment which is constantly changing, they should be aware of different educational innovations and ready to use them. http://www.eidos.ru names such innovative ideas as field-specific education, project work, new standards of education, competence approach, Unified National Exams etc. This website can help to get acquainted with the innovative achievements of teachers from different Russian schools.
The result and the way of presentation of the teacher professional development is a teacher portfolio. A teacher portfolio is an anthology of achievements that the teacher has accomplished, both in the classroom and elsewhere. This is a personal document. It is designed to display that teacher's talents and proficiencies. It demonstrates a teacher's knowledge and skills. What the teacher includes is always a matter of intent. The question that should be asked is, "What am I trying to tell the reader about myself?" Teacher portfolio is rather a reflective tool which demonstrates growth over time.
A typical portfolio includes the following:
1. A brief yet interesting biographical sketch, not a lengthy resume or a dissertation on education.
2. A description of the kinds of classes the teacher has taught recently. Tells the grade level, class content and describes teaching style.
3. Copies of documents, licenses, tests, etc. Demonstrates the teacher’s continuing education and creativity.
4. A short essay about the teacher’s teaching philosophy, how he teaches and why.
5. Copies of recent lesson or unit plans used. Photos of the class engaged in these activities will help.
6. Creative handouts the teacher has designed, student papers he has graded showing comments, etc.
7. Photographs of the classroom or a videotape of the teacher in action.
8. Peer observations and evaluations, letters of commendation, recognitions or honors the teacher has received.
Today teacher portfolios can exist as separate collections and as web-sites.
A teacher portfolio is a way of keeping teachers’ motivation in professional development. It helps to analyze and evaluate results of his own activity, define weak points and work out ways of dealing with them.
Russian pedagogical magazine “Zavuch” offers the following types of a teacher portfolio:
Portfolio of achievements contains documents confirming the teacher’s successful finishing of courses, participating in contests and conferences etc.
Portfolio for effective self-presentation includes everything necessary for presenting the teacher’s skills and qualification.
Topical portfolio contains materials on certain sphere of the teacher’s professional experience, for example, his research works, materials for lessons on his subject collected or worked out by him, etc.
Complex portfolio combining the previous kinds and presents the teacher’s professional career from all the possible angles6. Скрыть
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