CHAPTER 1 THE VERB IN MODERN ENGLISH
1.1 General characteristics of the Verb
1.2 Classification of the Verbs
CHAPTER 2 TEACHING ENGLISH GRAMMAR
2.1 The role of Grammar in teaching a foreign language
2.2 Communicative games for the development of grammar competence
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Показать все8. – 120 с.
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28M.Blokh. A Course in Theoretical Grammar.
I couldn't do anything under the circumstances.
A link-verb is followed by a predicative; together they form a nominal predicate.
He was a middle-aged man.
It became very hot by noon.
The hotel remained empty all through the winter.
The cottage seemed deserted.
Sometimes a verb is entirely devoid of lexical meaning and is then called an auxiliary verb. Combined with a notional verb it serves to build up analytical forms.
We had arranged to meet in the usual place.
Do you know why he said that?
The young man was sitting at the table alone.
Polysemantic verbs may be notional as well as structural words.
He is married and has three children (a notional verb used in the meaning 'to possess').
I had to reconsider my position (a structural word: a modal verb denoting obligation, part
Показать все of a modal predicate).
"It has happened now," he said, "so there's nothing to do" (a structural word: an auxiliary verb which serves to build up an analytical form).
He looked at me, waiting for the next words (notional verb meaning 'glanced').
He looked quite happy (a structural word: a link-verb meaning 'seemed').
CHAPTER 2 TEACHING ENGLISH GRAMMAR
2.1 The role of Grammar in teaching a foreign language
In the history of teaching English the problem of the role of Grammar was solved in different ways. The method of grammatical translation or conscious method affirmed that a foreign language can be studied only with the help of grammar. The direct or practice method had the opposite opinion that while studying a foreign language it was not worth to practice grammar.
These extreme approaches in our opinion have considerable disadvantages. The first method exaggerates the role of consciousness in studying and doesn’t pay attention to the fact that not only knowledge but also skills and practice are important. It exaggerates the role of grammar putting it in the first place in teaching material and in the lesson. This method was widely used in the old Soviet school and showed its groundlessness.
The contrary practice method exaggerates the role of skills automation and excludes grammar from the process of teaching, using grammar rules only in speech patterns which are mastered by repeating patterns and analogies. Thus the process of studying a language is only getting skills and practice by imitating and mechanical exercises while ignoring the role of consciousness and putting the task of unconscious adoption of a foreign language. This approach is likely to be the only possible one while teaching children in an early age. But it can not be considered sufficient for those people who begin studying a language in conscious age when a foreign language is adopted on the base of native language as the role of grammar is evidently underestimated.
Grammar is defined as “that part of the study of language which deals with the forms and structure of words (morphology), with their customary arrangement in phrases and sentences (syntax), and now often with language sounds (phonology) and word meanings (semantics).”1
Some of the many terms used in the study of grammar include tense, mood, person, gender, voice, number, aspect, case, modification, inflection, concord, agreement, sentence, phrase, clause, predicate, nexus, coordination, subordination, deep structure, surface structure, part of speech, punctuation, phonemics, morpheme, and semiotics.
E.B. White once said, “Writing is an act of faith, not a trick of grammar.”1 Artemus Ward asked, “Why care for grammar as long as we are good?”2 However, learning how to express your ideas clearly and correctly is always a worthwhile pursuit. It’s true that a successful writer can sometimes bend grammatical rules, but it takes an extensive knowledge of the English language to avoid looking like you’ve simply made a mistake.
To form grammar skill means to master the following operations:
а) to choose the structure necessary for forming your;
б) to form a sentence using the chosen structure i.e. the selection of necessary grammar inflexions, word building, word order.
The work of forming grammar skills needs a lot of time, practice and the selection of necessary grammar materials for the exercises. As the Program features little to foreign languages to master all grammar phenomena is unlikely.
Certain limits in the selection of grammar material is necessary, first of all those grammar phenomena that must be mastered actively. Active and Passive grammar minimums are distinguished in teaching a foreign language. S.V. Shatilov considers active grammar minimum as those grammar phenomena that can be recognized and understood in the text by pupils.3 Active grammar minimum is a kind of core of all grammar material which is selected for a secondary school.
The main principles of the selection of grammar material into active grammar minimum are the principle of extension in oral and written speech and the principle of patterns. According to these principles active grammar minimum consists only of those grammar phenomena that are true in sufficient range of lexis. Other grammar phenomena necessary for speech activity are mastered as separate word forms.
Traditionally grammar skills in pupil’s speech were studied isolately beyond the speech activity where they had to function. Grammar skills were elaborated during the process of practicing that was formal and had no communicative direction. That didn’t allow to bring learning conditions near to real circumstances of communication.
As A.Z. Ivleva writes the man who speaks, reads or writes a foreign language don’t form grammar rules during his speech, don’t change the words according to all grammar rules, don’t analyze sentences finding parts of speech and parts of sentence but he nevertheless uses grammar. It is grammar that is a magic tool that lets us to express the thought that the man has never expressed before and understand what he has never been spoken that is read for the first time.1
In the elementary stage of studying grammar and lexis are studied in complex. Pupils learn by heart many word combinations and exercises and then while speaking they repeat these phrases. Producing then pupils don’t possess grammar skills. These ones are elaborates only in case when a pupil forms grammar constructions by connecting words according to grammar rules.
Forming and mastering operations with grammar material, i.e. grammar skills, is the most important and difficult aspect of teaching a foreign language and as the latter is the aim of teaching grammar in the elementary level.
Grammar skills are automated operations performed with grammar material while producing speech when perception is directed to the sense of a phrase.
Grammar skills are formed on the base of analogy as a result of frequent repetitions with selected speech patterns. Practice exercises are based on the substitution of trained elements into the given model. In foreign languages substitution causes changing in the form of the words, that’s why just analogical; substitution is not enough. You need to know many rules according to which you can use substitution. Rules are necessary in substitution not to mix word forms in order to keep the sense.
The difficulty in solving problems of using grammar in teaching a foreign language, in Ivleva’s opinion, is the content of teaching foreign language correlation with its final purpose, i.e. the exposure of abstract and generalized material correlation systemized language material which is presented by grammar with skills in different kinds of speech activity mastering of which is practical communicative aim of teaching a foreign language.1
Grammar is language material that impartially exists in language. Bat grammar is not studied for its sake. Nowadays grammar is studied for communication in different kinds of speech activity.
The role of grammar is very significant. Mastering grammar contributes to the development of analytical abilities and advances skills in classification language phenomena on the base of their features, works out attention to the differentiation of these phenomena, i.e. development of pupils skills in formal logic.
A lot of experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but they have a great educational value. We hold that most grammar games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms.
The grammar games should be treated as central, not peripherical to the foreign language teaching programme. Games, as Richard Amato thinks, are to be fun, but he warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching programmes. There are many advantages of using games in grammar.
1. Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely.
2. Games are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunities to express their opinions and feelings.
3. They also enable learners to acquire new experience within the foreign language that are not always possible during a typical lesson.
4. Games add diversion to the regular classroom activities, break the ice and introduce the new ideas.
5. In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games the students remember things faster and better.
6. Grammar games are a good way of practicing the language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in future.
7. Grammar games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency.
If not for any of these reasons they should be used just because they help students to see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems, and this is the main reason to use games when studying English grammar.
2.2 Communicative games for the development of grammar competence
Native and foreign psychologists states that game is an optimal form of studying a foreign language. A game forms adequate attitude to life and presents a mean of stirring processes of attention, thinking and memorization up.
A game is a certain type of activity with aims, rules and elements of entertaining.
There are two main types of games:
1. Competing games are games in which players compete with each other or a team to be the first achieve the aim.
2. Co-operative games are games in which players and teams go together to the common goal.
Competing games are kind of co-operative games as competing elements of games where the stress is made to the quickness of performance prevent correct using of language.
Co-operative games should be distinguished from linguistic games the main goal of which is not solving a linguistic task but in organizing a spontaneous speech.
The successful conclusion of a communicative game is in performing the certain task – marking the route on the map, filling in the chart, diagram or finding two coinciding pictures, but not the correct forming of a sentence and correct using of a language.
The stress in a communicative game is made on successful communication but not on the grammatically correct speech. A communicative game should be used in comparatively advanced level of studying or using practiced language material.
Different techniques are in the base of communicative games, such as filling in the gaps, guessing, searching, selecting of the pair word, exchanging of the words, combinations, gathering of the information and so on.
In communicative games there is pair or group work is used, all the participants of the game should have the possibility to move around the room. The role of a teacher in this game is monitoring, he should move from one group to the other to listen to pupils, providing them with the information i.e. to help with the language, to notice mistakes but not to correct them and not to interrupt pupils.
Communicative games to develop grammar skills are performed in pairs or small groups where al members of the group have the certain information. Let us give the example of such games.
Searching games: every member of the group has his own part of in formation necessary to fill in the chart or to solve some problem. The main task is to reveal all the information. In that way every player is the informatory and the collector of the information at the same time. Terms of the game: to fill in the chart using the given Tenses of the verb.
For example, children are given the chart where there is some information about the Smiths. In one column there are dates of the events, in the second column there are some events which happened in the life of Smith family. The task is: to compose sentences i.e. to fill in the chart with verbs in the correct tenses and organize the events in the correct order. The game can be played teams, class and the individual players as well.
To have many friends
When Mr. Smith was a schoolboy had many friends.
To take only some minutes to get to the work
After graduating the university
After graduating the university he met his future wife at his friends.
To drive a bicycle / To buy a car
Mr. Smith went to his office on foot.
To meet his future wife at his friends
For 10 years
They have been married for 10 years.
To go to his office on foot
When Mr. Smith was a schoolboy
Some years ago he drove a bicycle but then they bought a car.
Not to work
When Mrs. Smith was a schoolgirl
Today Mr. Smith does not work.
To watch TV
When they bought a car
He is watching TV now.
To be married Скрыть
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