Table of contents
The essence of globalization
Definition of globalization
The origin of globalization
Types of globalization
Driving Forces of globalization
Different approaches to globalization
Globalization as an attack on Democracy
The list of literature
Appendix № 2
1.Challenges and risks of globalization. Martin Wolf, Associate Editor and Chief Economics Commentator// Financial Times. March 24th 2007 year.
2.The Threat of Globalization by Edward S. Herman// New Politics, winter 1999 year. (Electronic version)
Improved wealth through the economic gains of globalization has led to improved access to health care and clean water which has increased life expectancy. More than 85 percent of the world's population can expect to live for at least sixty years (that's twice as long as the average life expectancy 100 years ago!)
Increased trade and travel have facilitated the spread of human, animal and plant diseases, like HIV/AIDS, SARS and bird flu, across borders. The AIDS crisis has reduced life expectancy in some parts of Africa to less than 33 years and delays in addressing the problems, caused by economic pressures, have exacerbated the situation.
Globalization has also enabled the introduction of cigarettes and tobacco to developing countries, with major adverse health and financial costs
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Increased global income and reduced investment barriers have led to an increase in foreign direct investment which has accelerated growth in many countries. In 1975, total foreign direct investment amounted to US$23 billion while in 2003 it totaled US$575 billion.
The increasing interdependence of countries in a globalised world makes them more vulnerable to economic problems like the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990's.
Improved environmental awareness and accountability has contributed to positive environmental outcomes by encouraging the use of more efficient, less-polluting technologies and facilitating economies' imports of renewable substitutes for use in place of scarce domestic natural resources.
The environment has been harmed as agricultural, forest, mining and fishing industries exploit inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behavior in developing countries. Agricultural seed companies are destroying the biodiversity of the planet, and depriving subsistence farmers of their livelihood.
Increasing interdependence and global institutions like WTO and World Bank, that manage the settlement of government-to-government disputes, have enabled international political and economic tensions to be resolved on a «rules based» approach, rather than which country has the greatest economic or political power. Importantly it has bolstered peace as countries are unlikely to enter conflict with trading partners and poverty reduction helps reduce the breeding ground for terrorism.
The major economic powers have a major influence in the institutions of globalization, like the WTO, and this can work against the interests of the developing world. The level of agricultural protection by rich countries has also been estimated to be around five times what they provide in aid to poor countries
Improved technology has dramatically reduced costs and prices changing the way the world communicates, learns, does business and treats illnesses. Between 1990 and 1999, adult illiteracy rates in developing countries fell from 35 per cent to 29 per cent.
Trade liberalisation and technological improvements change the economy of a country, destroying traditional agricultural communities and allowing cheap imports of manufactured goods. This can lead to unemployment if not carefully managed, as work in the traditional sectors of the economy becomes scarce and people may not have the appropriate skills for the jobs which may be created.