Проблема по языкознанию и филологии. Срочно закажу курсовую работу по языкознанию и филологии. Есть буквально 3 дня. Тема работы «Средства выразительности используемые автором для достижения юмористического эффекта Джером К. Джером "Три человека в лодке"».
Средства выразительности используемые автором для достижения юмористического эффекта Джером К. Джером "Три человека в лодке"
1.1.Distinctive Features of Literary Texts.....................................................6
1.2.Definition of Style..................................................................................7
1.3. Humorous Effect.................................................................................10
Use of Tropes in “Three Men in a Boat” and Humour..................................12
1.Арнольд И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык. М., 2002.
2.Гальперин И. Р. Стилистика английского языка. М., 1977.
3.Chapman R. Linguistics and Literature: An Introduction to Literary Stylistics. Totowa, N. J.: Littlefield, Adams & Co., 1973.
4.Crystal D. and Davy D. Investigating English Style. London and New York: Longman, 1969.
5.Enkvist N. E. On Defining Style: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. In Spencer, John, eds. Linguistics and Style. London: Oxford UP, 1964.
6.Gibson W. Tough, Sweet, and Stuffy: An Essay on Modern American Prose Styles. New York: Random House, 1966.
7.Gibson W. Persona: A Style Study for Readers and Writers. New York: Random House, 1969.
8.Gregory M. and Carroll S. Language and Situation: Language Varieties in their Social Contexts.
Показать все London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.
9.Jerome K. J. Three Men in a Boat. // http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/308.
10.Kolln M. Rhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects. New York: Macmillan, 1991.
11.Leech G. N. and Short M. H. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. London and New York: Longman, 1981.
12.Riffaferre M. The StylisticFunction. Proceedings of the 9th Interriatidnal Congress of Linguists, The Hague, 1964.
13.St. Clair Carr. The Unsinkable Jerome K. Jerome // http://www.newimprovedhead.com/inaboat
14.Widdowson H. G. Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature. Essex: Longman, 1975.
6) the splitting of the literary language into separate subsystems called stylistic devices;
7) the interrelation between language and thought;
8) the individual manner of an author in making use of language.
The word style is derived from the Latin word 'stilus' which meant a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets. Now the word 'style' is used in so many senses that it has become a breeding ground for ambiguity. Some linguists consider that the word 'style' and the subject of linguistic stylistics is confined to the study of the effects of the message, i.e. its impact on the reader. Thus Michael Riffaterre writes that "Stylistics will be linguistics of the effects of the message, of the output of the act of communication, of it
Показать всеs attention-compelling function"12.
There is a widely held view that style is the correspondence between thought and expression. The notion is based on the assumption ; that of the two functions of language, (language is said to have two functions: it serves as a means of communication and also as a means of shaping one's thoughts). The first function is called communicative, the second - expressive, the latter finds its proper materialization in strings of sentences especially arranged to convey the ideas and also to get the desired response.
Another commonly accepted connotation of the term style is embellishment of language. This concept is popular and is upheld in some of the scientific papers on literary criticism. Language and style are regarded as separate bodies, language can easily dispense with style, which is likened to the trimming on a dress. Moreover, style as an embellishment of language is viewed as something that hinders understanding. In its extreme, style may dress the thought in such fancy attire that one can hardly get at the idea hidden behind the elaborate design of tricky stylistic devices.
This notion presupposes the use of bare language forms deprived of any stylistic devices of any expressive means deliberately employed. Perhaps it is due to this notion that the word "style" itself still bears a somewhat derogatory meaning. It is associated with the idea of something pompous, showy artificial, something that is set against simplicity, truthfulness, the natural. Shakespeare was a determined enemy of all kinds of embellishments of language.
Language, being one of the means of communication or, to be exact, the most important means of communication, is regarded in the above quotation from a pragmatic point of view. Stylistics in that case is regarded as a language science which deals with the results of the act of communication.
The evaluation is also based on whether the choice of language means conforms with the most general pattern of the given type of text—a novel, a poem, a letter, a document, an article, an essay and so on. Deliberate choice must be distinguished from a habitual idiosyncrasy in the use of language units; every individual has his own manner and habits of using them.
The individual style of an author is frequently identified with the general, generic term 'style'. But as has already been pointed out, style" is a much broader notion. The individual style of an author is only one of the applications of the general term 'style'. The analysis of an author's language seems to be the most important procedure in estimating his individual style.
In every individual style we can find both the general and the particular. The greater the author is, the more genuine his style will be. If we succeed in isolating and examming the choices which the writer prefers, we can define what are the particulars that make up his style and make it recognizable. The individuality of a writer is shown not only in the choice of lexical, syntactical and stylistic means but also in their treatment. What we here call individual style, therefore, is a unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic devices peculiar to a given writer; which makes that writer's works or even utterances easily recognizable.
1.3. Humorous Effect
Humour is most commonly understood as the ability or quality of people, objects, or situations to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. The origin of the term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which stated that a mix of fluids known as humours controlled human health and emotion.
A range of various different styles of humour, or techniques for evoking humour or creating a humorous situation include:
Use of such figures of speech as enthymeme (a syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) with an unstated assumption which must be true for the premises to lead to the conclusion), zeugma (a figure of speech in which one word applies to two others in different senses of that word, and in some cases only logically applies to one of the other two words), hyperbole (intensification of a feature), understatement (a form of speech where a lesser expression is used than what would be expected), antithesis (a device bordering between stylistics and logic, the extremes being easily discernible though most of the cases are intermediate);
Word play by means of oxymoron (a figure of speech that combines two normally contradictory terms (e.g. "deafening silence")) and pun (a figure of speech which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. It can rely on the assumed equivalency of multiple similar words (homonymy), of different shades of meaning of one word (polysemy), or of a literal meaning with a metaphor);
Use of comic sounds or inherently funny words with sounds that make them amusing in a language;
Use of jokes (short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at),
Irony (a figure of speech (more precisely called verbal irony) in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is understood),
Sarcasm (sneering, jesting, or mocking a person, situation or thing), etc.
All these ways of providing humorous effect are quite often used altogether though with some variation of their significance in various humorous texts, of which “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerome K. Jerome seems to be a sort of masterpiece, which is quite often referred to in funny moments of life.
Use of Tropes in “Three Men in a Boat” and Humour
Enthymeme is used quite frequenly in the novel, where the first chapter gives absolutely irrelevant consequencies to a wide range of potential ilnesses:
“I came to typhoid fever - read the symptoms - discovered that I had typhoid fever, must have had it for months without knowing it - wondered what else I had got; turned up St. Vitus's Dance - found, as I expected, that I had that too, - began to get interested in my case, and determined to sift it to the bottom, and so started alphabetically - read up ague, and learnt that I was sickening for it, and that the acute stage would commence in about another fortnight. Bright's disease, I was relieved to find, I had only in a modified form, and, so far as that was concerned, I might live for years. Cholera I had, with severe complications; and diphtheria I seemed to have been born with. I plodded conscientiously through the twenty-six letters, and the only malady I could conclude I had not got was housemaid's knee.”
George’s absolutely wrong argumentation shows incongruence of his quite uncommon mind:
“I must have been very weak at the time; because I know, after the first half-hour or so, I seemed to take no interest whatever in my food - an unusual thing for me - and I didn't want any cheese.”
These symptoms seemed to be desired by the character, who was not satisfied to be well. These symtoms he was dreaming of made him fight the imagined deseases:
“I made it a hundred and forty-seven to the minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. I have since been induced to come to the opinion that it must have been there all the time, and must have been beating, but I cannot account for it. I patted myself all over my front, from what I call my waist up to my head, and I went a bit round each side, and a little way up the back. But I could not feel or hear anything. I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as ever it would go, and I shut one eye, and tried to examine it with the other. I could only see the tip, and the only thing that I could gain from that was to feel more certain than before that I had scarlet fever.”
The hyperboles “It ( the heart) had stopped beating”, “I could not feel or hear anything” make the reader smile as the character would not stop his narration up to the end of the novel and reflect his irony over his own thoughts and actions.
Trying to be the doctor of himself the hero makes fun of an ordinary man’s fears and anxiety, as those silly ideas and actions make him “a happy, healthy man” miraculously.
To his surprise even his medical man confessing that “being only a chemist hampers him” does not show any signs of common sense and strengthens the author’s irony over absurd fears of human beings.
The prescription the doctor gives the protogonist does not deal with any medicines at all:
“1 lb. beefsteak, with 1 pt. bitter beer every 6 hours.
1 ten-mile walk every morning.
1 bed at 11 sharp every night.
And don't stuff up your head with things you don't understand.”
It makes ironic effect over the man’s desire to be serriously ill.
To describe his further sufferings the hero uses a pack of hyperboles and idioms reflecting his belief in being on the edge of the grave:
“What I suffer in that way no tongue can tell. From my earliest infancy I have been a martyr to it. As a boy, the disease hardly ever left me for a day. They did not know, then, that it was my liver. Medical science was in a far less advanced state than now, and they used to put it down to laziness.” Скрыть
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