II.Interjection as a linguistic unit
2.1Definition of interjections……………………………………… ..4
2.2Forms and morphological features of interjections……………….8
2.3Position and meaning of interjections……………………………12
III.Use of interjections in English language……………………………….16
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Показать все Fine, G. Smith. – Vol. 4 – L: Sage Publications, 2000.
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They present oaths, warnings, orders, instructions or value judgments. Even though they normally belong to other word classes, their repeated use in particular situational contexts and with corresponding prosodic features and intensity qualified them for the classification in this word class.Reduplication is a morphological process in which the root, stem of a word or a part of it is repeated. There are two main types of reduplication as viewed from word formation: complete (or total) reduplication, where the entire stem is repeated and incomplete (or partial) reduplication.Complete (full) reduplication involves the exact repetition of a sound or word. In English, this would involve putting together a sound or morpheme to bring forth an entirely new grammatical function or semantic featur
Показать всеe while full reduplication would be used to provide emphasis like goody-goody. In English compounds, new coinages of them are mainly nouns and adjectives. Some of these compounds are reduplicative, the segments are identical. The word goody-goody is a compound adjective. According to Green Baum [9, 462], the interjection goody-goody is also formed by intensifying. Most of the primary interjections are classified as imitative or onomatopoeic. They may consist of one element or more; sometimes they are reduplicative.As for partial reduplication, there are three types of it namely vowel alternations, onset alternations and rhyming words. Accordingly, the vowel alternations are the components of the reduplication in which exist with independent meanings but combine to form a different concept or meaning. Moreover, the onset alternations occur when there is a consonant change in alternation such as woo- hoo.Focusing on rhyming words, the roots of them are the first syllable of the reduplicated form; the derivations seem to undergo both the syllable copy as well as the vowel ablaut. Thus, when the two pseudo morphemes are put together, their rhymes (nuclear + coda) are the same as in cracko jacko, making them a part of the group of alternations as follow: Cracko jacko! This forming is rare in English. There exists a considerable set of words in English which are largely based on echoism or onomatopoeia: Pam pam! We are always pam pam! These are sounds produced by a human being, which imitate the sound of command to be silent, the laughter or the gun.So we can summarize the morphological features of English interjections in the table below:Morphological featuresEnglish interjectionsReduplicativesCompletereduplicatives- Adj compound: goody-goody- Onomatopoeia: hah hah- Repetition: bye-byePartialreduplicatives- Vowel alternations: woowee, hoo-ha- Onset alternations: woo-hoo- Rhyming words: cracko jackoProper namesExpletivesJesus christ, Jesus, goodnessgracious, crikey, gosh or jeezBlendinggollyTaboogosh or jeezEtymology- South Africa: whoa- French: lordsy mercy- Spanish: hallelujah!HalleluiahOnomatopoeiashh, hah-hah, pam pamPosition and Meaning of InterjectionAccording to the meaning of the Latin root and the denotation of the word interjection, the position of these linguistic elements is between other structural units of language. As it is stated in Oxford English Dictionary, an interjection is called so because it is interjected between sentences, clauses, or words, mostly without grammatical connection. It is not always very easy, particularly in connected speech, to decide whether a particular interjection makes a separate utterance of its own or the initial part of another one: Oh! I did not realize that. Greater independence of the interjected utterance can be marked by a longer pause between utterances in speech.Nevertheless the usual sentential position of interjections is at the beginning of the sentence and this position is often said to be independent, which means that they are not grammatically or functionally related to any other word classes of the sentence, nor do they have any syntactical relation to another clause. They are independent elements of sentences, only loosely linked with the sentence they appear in, if they are separated from the rest with a comma. An interjection can be a part of a simple statement that makes a proposition of sorts, not necessarily ended with an exclamation mark.Oh, you wanted to add something. I am sorry to have interrupted you.However, interjections can also initiate exclamatory sentences, anticipating the contents and the type of utterance. In this case interjections could be said to be functioning as loose adjuncts or disjuncts:Oh, what a nuisance!J. Sledd treats interjections as sentence adverbials: “...so called 'interjections' - words like gosh!, drat! - usually precede or follow the basic nominal verbal sequence, from which they are normally set off by terminals, and often they are further marked by a raise in pitch to the fourth and highest level and by unusual loudness” [13, 144].Gosh, I've forgotten my wallet.It is also possible to have interjections at the very end of sentences, separated from the central part by a comma. This usually holds for the infrequent cases of using the rather obsolete interjection Alas!They have arrived too late, alas!It has to be taken for granted that all interjections have some kind of meaning, otherwise they would probably not find their way in the language jungle and be soon discarded as redundant. It may be argued, however, whether this meaning is intrinsic, the meaning which people have assigned to these forms or only onomatopoeic, as echoism involves words whose very form is imitative of the natural sounds and are only meant to refer to these sounds and actions thereby. Probably both. The meaning of interjections has been fairly established since each and every interjection is uttered in particular language and situational context. However, we have to admit that there are exclamatory sounds which stand only for representation of particular sonar segments, such as zomster!, for example, and have no other special meaning. Everything in language has meaning which can be interpreted, if nothing else than as representing this or that sound as produced by this or that entity. Therefore, saying that particular interjections mean nothing is not utterly correct. In this respect, certain authors claim that interjections “...are purely emotive words which have no referential content nor any particularly significant grammatical function” [9, 413-414].According to their meaning, or rather, according to the predominant semantic features that their meaning is composed of the group of interjections that have certain emotional expressive potential can be diversified into different emotions that particular interjections are indicative of:Angerdamn! damnation! the devil! doggone! fuck! ha! hang it! hell! hunh! rats! shit! what! zounds!Annoyancebother ! damn! damnation! deuce! drat! drot! mercy! merde! oof! ouf(f)! ouch! rot! son of a bitch! spells! tut! tut-tut! zut!Approvalhear! hear! hubba-hubba! hurrah! keno! ole! so!Contemptbah! boo! booh! faugh! hum! humph! hunh! paff! paf! pah! pfui! pho! phoh! phoo! phooey! pish! poof! pouf! pouff! pooh! prut! prute! pshaw! puff! poff! quotha! rot! sho! shoo! shuh! shah! soh! tcha! tchah! tchu! tchuh! tuh! tush! tusch! tusche! tuch! yech! zut!Delightah! ach! coo! coo-er! goody! goody goody! whacko! wacko! whizzo! wizzo! yippee! yip-ee!Disgustaargh! bah! faugh! fuck! gad! humph! pah! phew! phooey! pish! pshaw! pugh! rot! shit! shoot! ugh! yech! yuck!Enthusiasmhubba-hubba! wahoo! zowie!Impatiencechut! gah! pish! pooh! pshaw! psht! pshut! tcha! tchah! tchu! tchuh! tut! tut-tut! why! zut!Feareeeek! oh! oh, no!Indignationhere ! here! why!Irritationcor! corks! doggone! hell! hoot! lord! lor'! lor! lors!lordy! lord me! merde! sapperment! shit! upon my word!Joyheyday! hurrah! ole! whee! whoop! whoopee! yippee!Painah! oh! ouch! ow! wow! yipe! yow!Pityalas! dear! dear me! ewhow! lackaday! lackadaisy! las! och! oche! wellaway! welladay! welliday!Pleasureaha! boy! crazy! doggone! good! heigh! ho! wow! yum! yumyum!Reliefwhew! whoof!Sorrowalas! ay! eh! hech! heck! heh! lackaday! lackadaisy! las! mavrone! och! oche! wellaway! welladay! welliday! wirra!Surpriseah! alack! blimey! boy! caramba! coo! cor! dear! dear me! deuce! the devil! doggone! gad! gee! gee-whiz! golly! good! goodness! gracious! gosh! ha! heck! heigh! heigh-ho! hey! heyday! ho! hollo! hoo-ha! huh! humph! indeed! jiminy! lord! man! mercy! my! nu! od! oh! oho! oh, no! phew! say! shit! so! son of a bitch! upon my soul! well! what! whoof! whoosh! why! upon my word! wow! yow! zounds!Sympathynow! tsk!Triumphaha! ha! hurrah! ole! so!Wonderblimey! crazy! gee! goodness! gosh! ha! heyday! oh! what! wow! Use of interjections in English languageThe English language abounds in variously shaped and semantically diverse one-word interjections. The majority of interjections are originally English, whereas a considerable number have entered the language from other languages, or are normally used in English with the same meaning as in the language of origin. The languages most borrowed from are French, Spanish, German, Arabic and Hebrew, and it was largely American English that served as the springboard for most of those. Around ten percent of approximately 550 interjections existing and used in English today are from other languages, not counting the specific ones used by English language speakers in Ireland and Scotland. These generally belong to the domain of social conventions and elements of language typical of certain cultural areas.Jovanović V. Ž.  indicated in his article that the interjection whoa originates from South Africa. It is a command to a horse to stop or stand still or request to a person to slow down speaking or acting as below:- Whoa, there, whoa, whoa! Where the hell have you been?Remarkably, the languages most borrowed from are French, Spanish and it was largely American English that served as the springboard for most of those. For instances: - Lordsy mercy! There he goes again!- Louis, you are a genius. Hallelujah! halleluiah!The interjections of English can be grouped into several sets based on their pragmatic value. The largest group would incorporate more situation-oriented interjections with restricted pragmatic purpose. They are uttered on specific, non-frequent occasions such as during definite social activities, playing certain games or performing rituals and we can say that they border on the so-called language formulae. Thus, these can be recognized as interjections with limited pragmatic range and a considerable number of them are borrowed from other languages. Скрыть
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