Фразеология и ее стилистическое использование на примере произведения Артура Хейли "Аэропорт".
Part I. English phraseological system
Concept of a phraseological combination of words
The basic types of phraseological units in English language
Stylistic features of English phraseology
Lingvoculturological features of English phraseological units
Part II. Figurative and expressive features of the phraseological units in the novel “Airport”
Possibilities of use of phraseological means
Role of the phraseological units in the novel “Airport”
Types of the phraseological units used in the novel “Airport”
Stylistic features phraseological units in the novel text
Jargon phraseology in the “Airport”
1.Barkova L.A. Pragmatical aspect of use of phraseological units in advertising texts: Abstract Ph.D. thesis of candidate of philological science. M. 1983.
2.Bradley H. The Making of English: McMillan and Co. Ltd. L., 1937.
3.Fedosov I.A. Functional and stylistic differentiation of Russian phraseology. M., 1977.
4.Galperin I.R. Stylistics. M., 1971. P. 313.
5.Gurevich A.J. A sketch of medieval culture. М., 1980.
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8.Kunin A.V. English-Russian phraseological dictionary. M., 1967.
9.Kusmin S.S. Russian-English dictionary for the translators. M., 2001.
10.Litvinov P.P. English-Russian dictionary with a thematic classification. M., 20
11.McKnight G.H. English Words and Their Background. N.Y.-L., 1931.
12.Nikolenko L.V. Leksikology and phraseology of modern Russian. М., 2005.
13.Sannikov V. Z. Russian language in a mirror of language game. М., 2002.
14.Shansky N.M. Phraseology of modern Russian. Spb. 1996.
15.Skrebnev Y.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. M., 2000.
16.Telija V.N. Russian phraseology: Semantic, pragmatical and lingvoculturological aspects. М, 1996.
17.The phraseological dictionary of Russian / Under the editorship of A.I. Molotkov. М, 1978. Скрыть
6) a combination of a verb to an adverb or participial: barking up the wrong tree, to see through; to become reasonable;
2. The typology based on conformity of syntactic functions of phraseological units and parts of speech by which they can be replaced. Such types of phraseological units are allocated:
1) nominal phraseological units: a swan song, at hand, to swing round, in a nutshell. In the sentence they carry out functions of a subject, a predicate, addition; on character of communications with in other words in a combination can operate any member and to be operated;
2) verbal phraseological units: to keep a track of, to stop smb cold, to run amuck. In the offer carry out a predicate role; in a combination with in other words can be co-ordinated, operate and be operated;
Показать всеtive phraseological units: on good terms, in no time, in the face of. They matter the qualitative characteristic, like adjectives, act in the offer as definition or a nominal part of a predicate;
4) adverbial phraseological units. They, like adverbs, characterise quality of action and carry out a role of circumstances in the sentence: to and fro, easy as pie, for sure, from now on;
5) interjection phraseological units: down a feather!; like hell!; neither a bottom to you nor tyre covers!; good luck!
Like interjections, such phraseological units express will, feelings, acting as the separate not dismembered offers. There is still a set of other classifications of phraseological units, however we consider pertinent and sufficient will be limited resulted above and to pass to illumination of following aspect of studying of phraseological units.
Stylistic features of English phraseology
English phraseology differs riches of is functional-style and emotionally-expressional synonyms (Fedosov 1977). Stylistic coloring of phraseological units, as well as words, defines their fastening in this or that style of speech. Thus as a part of phraseology it is allocated two groups of phraseological units:
1) the common phraseological units which do not have a continuous communication with that or other functional style;
2) functionally fixed phraseological units.
It is possible to carry to the first, for example, the such: to keep a word, from time to time, matters and under. They find application both in formal and in informal conversation. Unlike the common lexicon representing rather considerable part of the Russian dictionary, the common phraseology by quantity of units takes a modest place in all weight of English phraseological units.
Functionally fixed phraseological units are different from the point if view of stylistics: their paradigms differ the degree of expressiveness of emotional properties, etc. According to the styles of English language are marked out:
1) colloquial phraseology;
2) rough-colloquial phraseology;
3) the bookish;
5) the scientific;
6) the publicistic.
We can classify the English phraseological units according to the theory of three sryles: elevated, neutral and subneutral.
Some of phraseological units are elevated: an earthly paradise; to breathe one's last; to fiddle while Rome burns; the sword of Damocles. Some are subneutral: to rain cats and dogs; to be in one’s cups (= to be drunk); big bug (‘important official’); small fry (‘unimportant people’).
Among the elevated phrases we can discern the same groups as among the elevated words:
a) archaisms - the iron in one’s soul (‘permanent embitterment’); Mahomet’s coffin (‘between good and evil’); to play upon advantage (‘to swindle’);
b) bookish phrases - to go to Canossa (‘to submit’); the debt of nature (‘death’); the knight of the quill (‘writer’); gordian knot (‘a complicated problem’);
c) foreign phrases - a propos de bottes (‘unconnected with the preceding remark’); mot juste (‘the exact word’).
Subneutral phrases can also be divided into:
a) colloquial phrases - alive and kicking (‘safe and sound’); a pretty kettle of fish (‘muddle’);
b) jargon phrases - a loss leader (‘an article sold below cost to attract customers’);
c) old slang phrases - to be nuts about (‘to be extremely fond of’); to shoot one’s grandmother (‘to say a non-sensical or commonplace thing’); to keep in the pin (‘to abstain from drinking’); to kick the bucket, to hop the twig (‘to die’).
Even what can be called neutral phrases produce a certain stylistic effect as opposed to their non-phrasal semantic equivalents (to complete absence of phrases in the whole text). Correct English and good English are most certainly not identical from the viewpoint of stylistics. Idioms and set expressions impart local colouring to the text; besides, they have not lost their metaphorical essence to the full extent as yet - hence, they are more expressive than unidiomatic statements.
Compare the following extracts containing set phrases with their ‘translations’ (equivalents) devoid of phraseology:
“Come on, Roy, let’s go and shake the dust of this place for good” (Aldridge)
Cf. … let us go and leave this place for ever.
If she could not have her way, and get Jon for good and all she felt like dying of privation. By hook or by crook she must and would get him! (Galsworthy)
Cf. If she could not act as she liked, and get Jon for herself for her whole life ... By whatever means she must and would get him.
Absence of set phrases makes speech poor and in a way unnatural: something like a foreigner’s English. On the other hand, excessive use of idioms offends the sense of the appropriate. Recall Soames Forsyte’s apparent incomprehension of the slang phrase to have the bird used by his son-in-law, Mont (see above).
A very effective stylistic device often used by writers consists in intentionally violating the traditional norms of the use of set phrases (some authors call it ‘breaking up of set expressions’(Galperin 1971: 313). The writer discloses the inner form of the phrase; he either pretends to understand the phrase literally (every word in its primary sense), or reminds the reader of the additional meanings of the components of which the idiom is made, or else inserts additional components (words), thus making the phrase more concrete and more vivid, as in the following example in which the phrase shifting from foot to foot is altered:
He had been standing there nearly two hours, shifting from foot to unaccustomed foot. (Galsworthy)
Often the key-words of well-known phrases are purposely replaced.
Thus, unmasking the inhuman ‘philosophy of facts’ in his novel Hard Times, Dickens ironically exclaims Fact forbid! instead of God forbid!.
Mark Twain replaces the epithet in the expression The Golden Age, naming satirically his contemporary epoch The Gilded Age.
In the following instances the humorous treatment of the idioms consists in pretending to understand them literally:
“Then the hostler was told to give the horse his head, and his head being given him, he made a very unpleasant use of it: tossing it into the air with great disdain, and running into the parlour windows over the way ...” (Dickens)
(To give the horse his head means 'to loosen the reins’.)
“Soames bit his lip. “God knows!” he said. “She’s always saying something,” but he knew better than God.” (Galsworthy)
Henry writes that he had so many new schemes up his sleeve that he “had to wear kimonos to hold them”.
Two examples in which one of the components of the idiom is taken at its face value as a separate word and treated accordingly, which provides a humorous effect:
“ ... the miserable little being [an illegitimate child] was usually summoned into another world, and there gathered to the fathers it had never known in this.” (Dickens)
(To go to one's fathers is a euphemistic phrase that means ‘to die’.)
In what follows, the boy’s mouth is described in passing just after the phrase to be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth.
“Little Jon was born with a silver spoon in a mouth which was rather curly and large.” (Galsworthy)
On the basis of the ancient admonition, spare the rod and spoil the child (= if you do not punish your offspring, you will spoil him) the viewpoint of the new educational trend at the beginning of the twentieth century is thus summarized by Galsworthy:
“They spoiled their rods, spared their children and anticipated the results with enthusiasm.”
See also the title of Bernard Shaw’s play Too True to Be Good saying just the opposite of what it is the custom to say: too good to be true (= unbelievable ).
Observe, finally, a scornful word-for-word treatment of the current phrase in response to a gangster's reassuring verbosity:
“Alfred, he's my nephew. My sister’s child. Sort of his guardian, I am. He wouldn’t harm a fly, I assure you.”
“Next time I'll have a fly caught - specially for him not to harm it.” (Chandler)
A number of curious instances of distorting ‘literalizing’, combining and opposing phraseological expressions to achieve stylistic effects are adduced by L.A. Barkova, who studied commercial advertising (Barkova 1983). Here are some of them.
Assuring the prospective buyer of the high quality of those metallic parts of a car which its users rarely see (the inside of the car), an advertiser refers to it as to the other side of the metal. The expression is obviously derived from the internationally known phrase the other side of the medal.
A dealer in window blinds slightly alters the well-known saying Love is blind, advertising his merchandise thus: Our Love Is Blinds.
Changes in spelling (attaining a new meaning and at the same time preserving the phonetical form of the original set expression) are also resorted to. The well-known precept Waste not, want not (the idea of which is ‘wasting will make one suffer from want of what has been wasted’, or to put it shorter, ‘wasting brings suffering’) is used by the producer of dietary foods, hinting in his advertisement at the disadvantage of being fat: Waist not, want not.
A furniture shop praises its sofas: Sofa, So Good! (from so far, so good). A special device is the interaction of set phrases in an ad for a new cookbook: The last word in French cookbooks by the first lady of French cooking. The phrases last word and first lady make an antithesis, thus enhancing the expressive force of the statement.
Sometimes allusions are made use of. The ad recommending Smirnoff’s Silver (a famous brand of whisky) says that it is for people who want a silver lining without the cloud (the allusion is to the proverb Every cloud has a silver lining, i.e. ‘everything that is bad has a good side to it’). The advertiser's assertion without the cloud could be a hint that the consumer will have no hang-over afterwards.
All the examples of phraseology in advertising were collected by L.A. Barkova. The author of the present book has only commented on some of them.
Lingvoculturological features of English phraseological units Скрыть
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