1.The Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages.
2.The Roman Invasions
3.Why and when they leave
4.Describe life in post Roman England.
5.Who were the next invaders?
6.Who are the Vikings? What did they want? What did they do?
7.Who was King Alfred and why was he called “The Great”?
8.Aethelred the Unready
9.Who was Canute and how did he achieve his rule?
10.Account for the name Edward the Confessor
12.Why is the year 1066 important? What are the causes and effects?
13.the Doomsday book
14.What is Feudalism?
15.Who were the Plantagenets?
16.What were the Crusades?
17.Magna Carta: Why is this document so famous
19.What is the 0ne Hundred years war? Who was Joan of Arc?
20.What do you know about the Black Death?
21.What was the War of the Roses?
22.Talk about King Henry VII
Показать всеI. Why is he maybe the most famous and important King?
23.Who was Martin Luther?
24.What is the Reformation?
25.Explain the differences if any between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism
26.Describe Elizabethan England
27.What was the Spanish Armada?
28.Who was Francis Drake?
29.What was the reason behind the Gunpowder Plot?
30.What happened to Charles 1 and why?
31.Describe Oliver Cromwell’s rule.
32.What is the Restoration?
33.Describe the social changes during this period.
34.Describe the slave trade.
35.What happened to the colony in America?
36.Come prepared to discuss the “Industrial Revolution”, beginnings, inventions, results on the economy and the social affects.
37.What effect(s) did the Napoleonic wars have on Britain and its society?
38.Speak about Victorian EnglandСкрыть
That is why the book got its name "the Doomsday book".What is Feudalism?The social structure of the Middle Ages was organized round the system of Feudalism. Feudalism in practice meant that the country was not governed by the king but by individual lords, or barons, who administered their own estates, dispensed their own justice, minted their own money, levied taxes and tolls, and demanded military service from vassals. Usually the lords could field greater armies than the king. In theory the king was the chief feudal lord, but in reality the individual lords were supreme in their own territory. Many kings were little more than figurehead rulers. Feudalism was built upon a relationship of obligation and mutual service between vassals and lords. A vassal held his land, or fief, as a grant f
Показать всеrom a lord. When a vassal died, his heir was required to publicly renew his oath of faithfulness (fealty) to his lord (suzerain). This public oath was called "homage".Who were the Plantagenets?They were a French family that assumed control of the English throne in 1133. Although the Plantagenets were not successful in gaining power in France, the English Plantagenet Kings ruled until 1485. The line comprised 14 monarchs, and fell into extinction at the hands of the Tudor Dynasty. Henry II was succeeded by his third son, Richard the Lionhearted. Richard spent most of his youth in a battle for succession between his father and his older brothers. Eventually, after Henry’s defeat by Richard at the Battle of Ballans, Henry named Richard his heir. Richard’s throne passed to his younger brother John at his death. From John onwards, the throne passed from father to son for several generations. In their centuries-long rule, the Plantagenets oversaw many key events in British history. In 1215, King John signed the Magna Carta, guaranteeing protection from unlawful imprisonment to all citizens. The rule of the Plantagenets was essential in forming the modern character of England, and has provided endless sources of material for books, plays and films throughout the ages.What were the Crusades?Military expedition carried out by the European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims. The term "Crusade" can be used generally to refer to any of the military operations launched during the middle ages by the Catholic Church and Catholic political leaders against non-Catholic powers or heretical movements. Most crusades, however, were directed at Muslim states in the Middle East, with the first starting in 1096 and the last in 1270. The term itself is derived from the Latin cruciata, which means "cross-marked," i.e. cruce signati, those who wear the insignia of scarlet crosses.Magna Carta: Why is this document so famousMagna Carta is famous for the biggest popular myth in English history - the "fact" that King John signed the document at Runnymede in 1215. The truth is that no documents were ever signed at that time in English history - they were confirmed with the Great Royal Seal. John did not sign any of the 12 or more copies produced on that day, but he did have his seal applied to them all and they were distributed around the entire country. So John sealed Magna Carta, he did not sign it. Only a few of those 12 or more copies have survived, not one of them bearing a signature. It is of historic importance because for the first time a king could be over-ruled by his barons, if the terms of the charter were not adhered to. It effectively limited the powers of the king in a way that had never before happened.Edward 1 also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307.He was the most successful among medieval monarchs. He made great strides in reforming government, consolidating territory, defining foreign policy. He invaded and conquered Scotland. 1. What is the 0ne Hundred years war? Who was Joan of Arc?The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was the most notable conflict of the Middle Ages, wherein five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war saw both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.Joan of Arc was born in 1412 in France. Most of her childhood was relatively uneventful, until in 1424, when she began having visions. In her visions, Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine, and Saint Michael told Joan that she needed to support King Charles VII and help rid France of the English. During the many battles of the Hundred Years War that were to come, despite her young age, Joan, a simple peasant girl, was instrumental in capturing Orleans. This accomplishment was immense, but she later went on to capture Rheims, Paris, and numerous other towns in an effort to free France from the English.2. What do you know about the Black Death?The Black Death arrived in Europe by sea in October 1347 when 12 Genoese trading ships docked at the Sicilian port of Messina after a long journey through the Black Sea. The people who gathered on the docks to greet the ships were met with a horrifying surprise: Most of the sailors aboard the ships were dead, and those who were still alive were gravely ill. They were overcome with fever, unable to keep food down and delirious from pain. Strangest of all, they were covered in mysterious black boils that oozed blood and pus and gave their illness its name: the “Black Death.” The Sicilian authorities hastily ordered the fleet of “death ships” out of the harbor, but it was too late: Over the next five years, the mysterious Black Death would kill more than 20 million people in Europe–almost one-third of the continent’s population.3. What was the War of the Roses?The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. They were fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, the houses of Lancaster and York. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, although there was related fighting before and after this period. The conflict resulted from social and financial troubles that followed the Hundred Years' War, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of Henry VI, which revived interest in the alternative claim to the throne of Richard, Duke of York. The final victory went to a claimant of the Lancastrian party, Henry Tudor, who defeated the last Yorkist king, Richard III, at the Battle of Bosworth Field. 4. Talk about King Henry VIII. Why is he maybe the most famous and important King?Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, thus initiating the English Reformation, he greatly expanded royal power.1. Who was Martin Luther?Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German friar, priest and professor of theology who was a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Initially an Augustinian friar, Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor.2. What is the Reformation?The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. Along with the religious consequences of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation came deep and lasting political changes. Northern Europe’s new religious and political freedoms came at a great cost, with decades of rebellions, wars and bloody persecutions. The Thirty Years’ War alone may have cost Germany 40 percent of its population.3. Explain the differences if any between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.1. The Pope. Catholics have a Pope, which they consider a vicar for Christ — an infallible stand-in, if you will — that heads the Church. Protestants believe no human is infallible and Jesus alone heads up the Church.2. Big, Fancy Cathedrals. Catholics have them; Protestants don’t. Why? Well, Catholicism says that “humanity must discover its unity and salvation” within a church. Protestants say all Christians can be saved, regardless of church membership. (Ergo… shitty, abandoned storefront churches? All Protestant.)3. Saints. Catholics pray to saints (holy dead people) in addition to God and Jesus. Protestants acknowledge saints, but don’t pray to them. There is much debate about the use of the word “pray” in this context, so let me clarify: Saints are seen by Catholics as an intermediary to God or Jesus. Although Catholics do technically pray to saints, they are not praying for the saints to help them directly but to intervene on their behalf. 4. Holy Water. Catholics only. 5. Celibacy and Nuns. Catholics only. 6. Purgatory: Catholics only. 7. Scripture: The be-all, end-all for Protestants is “the Word of God.” For Catholics, tradition is just important as scripture — maybe even more so.4. Describe Elizabethan England.The Elizabethan era was the epoch in English history of Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia was first used in 1572 and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe. In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy (1988) argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years.5. What was the Spanish Armada?The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. The strategic aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Tudor establishment of Protestantism in England, with the expectation that this would put a stop to English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering. Philip II attempted to invade England, but his plans miscarried, partly because of his own mismanagement, and partly because the defensive efforts of the English and their Dutch allies prevailed.6. Who was Francis Drake?Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral (1540 – 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. Скрыть
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