The development of university governance types in Britain over the last nine hundred years hasnot been a linear process. New types of governance structures co-exist with earlier species. One cannot help but compare the youngest governance structure,dominated by external interests overseeing the operations of the university, and the earliest,dominated by internal, academic interests. Some authors have signaled that the late twentiethcentury marked a breakdown in the academic-led collegial governance tradition of Paris, Oxfordand Cambridge. Recent governance debates at Oxford and Cambridge have considered the inclusion of more laymembers at the highest levels of their institutional governance. This begs the question: does this signal the beginning of the end of a university govern
Показать всеance type? Will the academically-led governance structure becomeextinct after nine hundred years? The answer to this question has yet to be answered.Furthermore, the answer may be more complex than a simple affirmative or negative. Asconservative as they are, Oxford and Cambridge, like all universities, have evolved over time.The roles and responsibilities their governing bodies now have are different than those of thetwelfth, sixteenth or nineteen centuries. Although different species of university governance maycontinue to coexist, they must also continue to evolve. Their success, and survival, depends upon it.
Thus, the analysis of universities of Great Britain showed that the most top places of a rating are held by the oldest universities of the country. It is caused by that these universities have a pancake house history, the traditions and ability to give quality education during any period of time. Also It should be noted that undoubted advantage of old universities of Great Britain is their name which is enough to get a good job. Oxbridge is a part of this elite category of universities and offers a huge number of different specialties for students of the whole world that does it to the most competitive in the market of educational services as Great Britain, and the world. Скрыть
The educational system is the most demanded product in the market. At the expense of educational system any state and society receives the qualified employees who are capable to influence development of policy, economy and country society. In this regard to arise a question of quality of educational services offered in the market and their level. It should be noted that universities with long history, as a rule, have huge advantage in comparison with new universities. It is connected with creation of a known brand, and also prestigiousness of training at ancient university.
Objective of this research - to carry out the comparative analysis of modern British universities and Oxbridge.
For achievement of a goal it is necessary to solve the following problems:
- to open evolut
Показать всеion of management by universities;
- to analyze a rating of leading universities of Britain for 2013-2014;
- to analyze characteristics of universities of the first ten.
Relevance of research is caused by that the set of universities which are ready to provide training services opens now. It should be noted also that many of them successfully come to the international level and can accept foreign students educating them the international level. However at all positive lines of modern universities, they have also negative sides. They have no such quality assurance, as at ancient universities of Great Britain, in particular Oxbridge. In this regard there is actual a studying of distinctive features of old British universities from modern analogs. Скрыть
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part 1. Evolution of university governance types 3
Part 2. Rating of British universities in 2014. 9
Part 3. Comparative analysis of top ten universities of Great Britain 12
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That matters because those left behind are less likely to join the ranks of Britain’s elites. Over 30% of leading professionals in the U.K., including almost 80% of the judiciary, 47% of highflyers in financial services and 41% of top journalists attended Oxbridge, according to recent studies by the Sutton Trust, a U.K. educational charity. Every university-educated Prime Minister since 1937 has walked one of the two universities’ halls save Gordon Brown . (Prime Minister David Cameron and his deputy, Nick Clegg, both attended top private schools and then Oxbridge, as did approximately two-thirds of their Cabinet.) This isn’t just bad news for the clever, underprivileged students who don’t attend Oxbridge — it’s bad news for Britain, which draws its elites from an artificially narrow pool
Показать всеthat is largely cut off from the country at large.Cambridge and Oxford have in recent years ramped up their existing efforts, which got underway over a decade ago, to actively seek out underprivileged students. Oxford now spends $4 million a year on student outreach, up from $1.6 million in 2006–07. While some of that money is still used to recruit from posh private schools, much is spent on school visits and teacher-training sessions aimed at encouraging poor and minority students to apply to the university. In 2010, Oxford also launched a summer school, which gives some 500 academically talented, state-school students a chance to experience studying at Oxford for a week. (Previously, Oxford hosted summer schools for unprivileged students set up and funded by the nonprofit Sutton Trust starting in the late 1990s. Cambridge continues to run and largely fund a Sutton Trust summer school program.) In addition, the university admissions office highly recommends to tutors that qualified students from poor areas be invited for interviews. And it has set a target of increasing the number of undergrads from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas from 6.1% to 9% by 2016–17.Much of this is due to pressure from outside. In 2010, a Member of Parliament from the left-leaning Labour Party, David Lammy, launched a campaign to encourage diversity at Oxbridge after examining admissions data obtained via freedom-of-information requests. He found that almost 90% of the student body at both universities is drawn from the upper and middle classes, that Oxford accepted only one British black Caribbean undergraduate who declared his or her ethnicity in 2009, and that in 2008 and 2009, Oxford held 21% of its outreach events at private schools, including 12 at Kate Middleton’s school, Marlborough College, and nine at Prince William’s alma mater, Eton College. (State school students were invited.) Lame’s exposé, which received a flurry of press attention, led Cameron to describe the situation at Oxbridge as “disgraceful.” (His remarks, prefaced by the statement: “I saw figures the other day that showed that only one black person went to Oxford last year,” came under criticism from Oxford and others as inaccurate. One British black Caribbean undergraduate was accepted that year, out of the 27 black undergraduates admitted from the U.K. Cameron’s office responded by noting that the Prime Minister was making a “wider point” about “black and minority ethnic groups” at “universities like Oxford.”)Around the same time, the government began a push to speed change at Oxbridge. In February 2012, Liberal Democrats in the U.K. coalition government pushed through the appointment of a new head of the independent public body charged with safeguarding fair access to higher education, the Office for Fair Access, Les Ebdon, who has indicated his intention to negotiate “challenging” diversity targets with English universities, in exchange for allowing them to charge up to $14,500 per year in tuition fees.All told, these efforts seem to be having an effect. Last year, Oxford announced that it accepted a record number of state-school applicants, 57.7%, for the incoming 2011 class. In September 2012, Cambridge announced that it admitted 63.3% state-school students for 2012–13, up from 58% the year before.Yet critics say while both universities are on the right path, the problem is far from solved. According to the Sutton Trust, about 90% of the “public-school students” accepted by Oxbridge were plucked from schools with above average levels of attainment, including selective grammar schools akin to New York’s famed Bronx High School of Science. And within the universities’ constituent undergraduate colleges — which oversee admissions individually — there are deep inconsistencies in efforts to track down bright underprivileged undergraduates. There has been progress — colleges like Mansfield at Oxford and King’s at Cambridge are really going out of their way to recruit the best and the brightest wherever they are. But the lion’s share of colleges simply aren’t pulling their weight. Pembroke is one college beginning to pull its weight, thanks to the efforts of Professor Claus and others at Pembroke to make equality of opportunity a priority. In September, the college announced a 10-year strategy for outreach to underprivileged students, including the expansion of the Pem-Brooke program to schools in the northwest of England.But even at Pembroke, these efforts are relatively recent. Until 2008, the college confined itself to the traditional “outreach” activities, opening its halls to potential applicants who cared to come and hosting visiting schoolchildren. This meant, in essence, that the college was preaching to the converted. “Activities that try and get people who were perhaps not thinking about Oxford,” says Mark Fricker, academic director of Pembroke. “Up until the Pem-Brooke scheme [in 2008], our activities in those areas were pretty slim.”Sitting in Pembroke’s elegant faculty room, Claus, whose warm demeanor belies the stereotype of the aloof Oxford academic, reflects on why Britain’s two oldest universities have come so late to the game. It’s the pressure to publish that keeps academics from throwing themselves into outreach work, he says, balancing a cup of tea. But his own underprivileged background — he came to his history professorship via Ruskin College, an adult-education institution in Oxford — means he’s taken a special interest. “I have to do it,” he says.The centerpiece of the Pem-Brooke project in Hackney, one of the roughest parts of London, is a room similar to an Oxford professor’s study, built right in the heart of BSix. Called the Red Room, it’s meant to get poor students used to the sort of surroundings they might encounter at an Oxbridge admission interview — during which a university academic invites a prospective undergrad into her study, hands him a cup of tea and ruthlessly probes the limits of his intelligence. When the replica professor’s room first hit the papers in March, some in the press called it a gimmick. But Claus says creating an elevating space in the school — a modern building next to a concrete tower block — was crucial. “We wanted to get away from education as training,” he says, referencing the common idea that poor students would be better off learning to be car mechanics or carpenters. “Education is for life.”So, if you're lucky enough to figure among the alumni of the University of Oxford, you're likely to have heard the news: your place of learning needs cash. Lots of it. In late May, Oxford launched the most ambitious fund-raising drive ever undertaken by a European university, aimed at boosting its coffers by at least $2.5 billion. The eager among you have chipped in already — helping Oxford to more than $1 billion so far — but there are many that haven't. 3. New British Universities : difference from OxbridgeIn fact, two categories of institutions have been given this label: those created in the 1960s less often called Plate Glass Universities, which were known as "New Universities" when first created, but which are now more commonly considered a sub-section of the "Old Universities" which existed prior to the 1992 changes which allowed Polytechnics to become Universities, and those created in or after 1992 often called Post-1992 universities, from polytechnics and colleges of Higher Education, which are the Universities most commonly referred to as "New Universities" in the present day. Two types of universities are subsumed under the term "New Universities". First of all the academic institutions founded in the 1960s after the Robins Report. Besides recommending immediate expansion of universities, the Report also suggested elevating Colleges of Advanced Technology to university status. Скрыть
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