The main direction of development of Local self-goverment legislation(in Russia)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Definition of local self-government and its components in Russian legislature
2. Evolution of local self-government legislature in Moscow region, Russia
1.Constitution of the Russian Federation // http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=2875;dst=0;ts=42BBFE9E290D8424F4E60724FD3E8522;rnd=0.14302659430541098
2.Decree № 2265 from December 22, 1993 «On guarantees of local self-government in the Russian Federation» // http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=2892;dst=0;ts=42BBFE9E290D8424F4E60724FD3E8522;rnd=0.8725435435771942
3.Federal Law № 131-FZ from September 24, 2003 (and following revisions) « On General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation» // http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=133514;dst=0;ts=E79A811A8B0468364DB14F1E79528556;rnd=0.39577499916777015
4.Federal Law № 40-FZ from May, 2 2012 «On general pri
Показать всеnciples of the organization of legislative (representative) and executive bodies of state power of the Russian Federation» // http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=129119
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Such approach corresponds with general constitutional principles. Article 12 in the Constitution of the Russian Federation applies the words «are not a constituent part of any governmental body» to identify the exact relations between the local self-government bodies and the federal government bodies but not the public authority in general. According to this definition, local self-government bodies can not be a constituent part of federal government. According to Articles 12 and 130 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, local self-government bodies enjoy the competences of a third (local) level of public authorities. The division of government bodies (federal and regional) and local self-government bodies in the Constitution of the Russian Federation is functional. It provides for
every level of public power needs to be exclusively defined;
municipal autonomy needs to be granted and protected in accordance with Chapter 8 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
It is worth noting that this definition doesn’t imply that local self-government is separated from general politics. The fact that local self-government belongs to the system distributing power and influence actually integrates it into public political system.
The term «self-government model» is used in legal and political meaning in order to characterize basic typical features of local self-government in Russia compared to other countries.
But the exact model for self-government has been never constitutionally recommended in Russia – just in very general terms. It only requires that state and municipal powers shall be separated and never joined in one body. However the models and exact features of self-government were left to be described in federal laws.
After the adoption of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation, the President of Russia in order to further reform the local government and to ensure its state support initiated a Decree from December 22, 1993 «On guarantees of local self-government in the Russian Federation»3.
This Decree states the following:
local authorities shall independently approve the list of objects (assets) of municipal property;
the powers of the representative body of local self-government and local administration were clearly separated;
the decisions of local authorities can be canceled only by a court decision;
the head of the local self-government, being the head of the local administration, is empowered to initiate a referendum on local regulations (statute) of the local self-government, to chair meetings of the elected representative body of local self-government;
the date of elections to the representative body of local self-government shall be established by the decision of the representative (legislative) authority of the corresponding subject of the Russian Federation upon the proposal of the head of the chief executive body.
The head of the local self-government and other officials of the local administration are allowed to be members of the representative body of local self-government.
The development of the Federal Law «On the General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation» and its adoption marked a new stage in the development of the municipal law.
2. Evolution of local self-government legislature in Moscow region, Russia
The Federal Law on General Principles of Local Self-Government from 1995, based on the constitutional provisions, defined the powers of public authorities (federal and regional) in the field of self-local government, thus identifying their role in the development of the legal framework of local self-government.
After this Federal Law has come into force in 1995, a number of federal laws, developing its provisions were developed: «On the Financial Basis of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation» (1997), «On the basis of municipal services in the Russian Federation» (1998) and etc.
According to the law of 1995, the federal level (since Russia has a federal structure) should set out only general principles of organization of local self-government, its foundations, as well as the system of federal guarantees for the rights of local self-government, as well as the rights of citizens to implement it.
The liability of legal regulation of local self-government on the basis of federal law in general was assigned to the subjects of the Russian Federation.
Starting from January 1, 2009, when the Federal Law № 131-FZ «On General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation»4 came into force in its entirety, a new stage of the development of local self-government legislature started. This also happened in the Moscow region.
Since 2009, the subjects of the Russian Federation have no right to identify independently which issues to be regarded as local and to be addressed by local municipalities all settlements regardless of their income and fiscal capacity possess the same amount of powers stated by the Federal Law № 131-FZ.
However, the Federal Law № 131-FZ provides a mechanism that allows to smoothen this process – in a form of a special agreement on power transfer concluded between the districts and villages. Using this opportunity and in order to preserve the stability and quality of life, the settlements transfer some of their powers (those that they are not ready to perform themselves) to the district level through such agreements.
Among such transferred powers one can find:
1. Development, approval, implementation of the budget of the settlement and control over the execution of the budget;
2. Organization of provision of power, heat, gas and water to the residents within the settlements; Скрыть
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