part of Austria-Hungary since 1867
the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR) since 1960
the Czechoslovak Federative Republic (ČSFR) since 1990
Czech Republic (since 1993)
The Bohemian or Czech state emerged in the late 9th century, when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty. The kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire during the entire existence of that confederation.
In 1212, King Přemysl Otakar I (1198–1230), bearing the title “king“ already since 1198, extracted a Golden Bull of Sicily from the emperor, confirming the royal title for Otakar and his descendants.
The 14th century, particularly the reign of Charles IV (1342–1378), is considered the Golden Age of Czech history. Of p
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