1. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
2. DEFINITION OF AN “ACCENT”
3. COCKNEY ENGLISH
4. AMERICAN ENGLISH
5. AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH
1.Атрушина Г. Б., Афанасьева О. В., Морозова Н. Н. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов. — М.: Дрофа, 1999. — 288с.
2.Елисеева В.В. Лексикология английского языка (учебник). СПб: СПбГУ, 2003. – 44 p.
3.Crystal, David. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. 4th edition. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. 1997. - 426 p.
4.Fisiak J. An Outline History of English: 2 vols. Poznan, 1993.
5.Jespersen O. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. London, 1956.
6.Wyld H. C. A History of Modern Colloquial English. Oxford, 1936.
Accent, as in “foreign accent” or “English accent”, refers to differences in pronunciation. These differences indicate the speaker's dialect or native language.
In England, the main accent groupings are between the south and the north. The dividing line is believed to start from Shrewsbury to Birmingham and to the Wash. The prestige or posh English accent is known as Received Pronunciation (RP) that is thought to have its roots in the educated language of south-eastern England. It’s more commonly known as the Southern English accent.
The accent spoken in the east end of London is called Cockney. The London accent is quite widespread in many parts in Southern England too. The West Country, particularly Bristol, has a very distinctive pronunciation. This also applies to other rural areas l
Показать всеike parts of East Anglia. When you go up north you will find that, the West Midlands, especially Birmingham, has a rather different accent of its own. The Birmingham accent is among the most difficult accents to understand according to many people from other parts of England.
Liverpool also has a unique accent of its own which is called the Scouse accent. Many believe that Liverpool has traces of the Irish accent. Other parts of the country that have distinctively different accents are Manchester (Mancunian), Leeds, Sheffield, and particularly Newcastle (Geordie), just to name a few.
It could be possible to identify the city or town that someone comes from based on their accent. Some say that accents will gradually start disappearing when people travel more and more. It’s still a bit of a surprise that they have lasted this long considering. England is truly a nation divided by the common language.
3. COCKNEY ENGLISH
Due to the fact that London is both the political capital and the largest city within England, Wells, doesn’t find it surprising that it’s also the country’s "linguistic center of gravity." Cockney represents the basilectal end of the London accent and can be considered the broadest form of London local accent. It traditionally refers only to specific regions and speakers within the city. While many Londoners may speak what is referred to as "popular London" they do not necessarily speak Cockney. The popular Londoner accent can be distinguished from Cockney in a number of ways, and can also be found outside of the capital, unlike the true Cockney accent.
The term Cockney refers to both the accent as well as to those people who speak it? The etymology of Cockney has long been discussed and disputed. One explanation is that "Cockney" literally means cock's egg, a misshapen egg such as sometimes laid by young hens. It was originally used when referring to a weak townsman, opposed to the tougher countryman and by the 17th century the term, through banter, came to mean a Londoner (Liberman, 1996). Today's natives of London, especially in its East End use the term with respect and pride - `Cockney Pride'.)
Cockney is characterized by its own special vocabulary and usage, and traditionally by its own development of "rhyming slang." Rhyming slang, is still part of the true Cockney culture even if it is sometimes used for effect. More information on the way it works can be found under the Cockney English features section.
London, the capital of England, is situated on the River Thames, approximately 50 miles north of the English Channel, in the south east section of the country. It is generally agreed, that to be a true Cockney, a person has to be born within hearing distance of the bells of St. Mary le Bow, Cheapside, in the City of London. This traditional working-class accent of the region is also associated with other suburbs in the eastern section of the city such as the East End, Stepney, Hackney, Shoreditch Poplar and Bow.
The Cockney accent is generally considered one of the broadest of the British accents and is heavily stimatized. It is considered to epitomize the working class accents of Londoners and in its more diluted form, of other areas. The area and its colorful characters and accents have often become the foundation for British "soap operas" and other television specials. Currently, the BBC is showing one of the most popular soaps set in this region, "East Enders" and the characters’ accents and lives within this television program provide wonderful opportunities for observers of language and culture.
4. AMERICAN ENGLISH
General American (sometimes called Standard Midwestern or American Broadcast English) is the accent (accent (language) ) of American English perceived by Americans to be most “neutral” and free of regional characteristics. The General American accent is not thought of as a linguistic standard (standard language ) in the sense that Received Pronunciation (RP) has historically been the standard, prestige (prestige dialect ) variant (variety (linguistics) ) in England , but its speakers are perceived as “accentless” by most Americans (United States ).
While there is and can be no single formal definition of General American, various features are considered to be part of it, including rhotic (Rhotic and non-rhotic accents ) pronunciation, which maintains the coda (syllable coda ) in words like pearl, car, and court. Unlike RP, General American is characterized by the merger (phonemic differentiation ) of the vowels of words like father and bother, flapping , and the reduction of vowel contrasts before. General American also generally has yod-dropping (English consonant cluster reductions- Yod-dropping ) after alveolar consonant s. Other phonemic mergers, including the cot-caught merger, the pin-pen merger, the Mary-marry-merry merger and the wine-whine merger may be found optionally at least in informal and semiformal varieties; however, the most formal varieties tend to be more conservative in preserving these phonemic (Phoneme) distinctions.
One phenomenon apparently unique to General American is the behavior of words that in RP have where V stands for any vowel.
American spelling is usually simpler. For example, British English words ending in -our and -re, end in -or and -er in American English, e.g. colour/color, centre/center. There are differences in individual words too, e.g. British 'plough' becomes 'plow'. The American spelling usually tries to correspond more closely to pronunciation.
5. AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH
The history of Australian English starts with kangaroo (1770) and Captain James Cook’s glossary of local words used in negotiations with the Endeavour River tribes. The language was pidgin.
The aboriginal vocabulary, which is one of the trademarks of Australian English, included billabong (a waterhole), jumbuck (a sheep), corroboree (an assembly), boomerang (a curved throwing stick), and budgerigar (from budgeree, “good” and gar, “parrot”).
The number of Aboriginal words in Australian English is quite small and is confined to the namings of plants (like bindieye and calombo), trees (like boree, banksia, quandong and mallee), birds (like currawong, galah and kookaburra), animals (like wallaby and wombat) and fish (like barramindi). As in North America , when it comes to place-names the Aboriginal influence was much greater: with a vast continent to name, about a third of all Australian place-names are Aboriginal.
The Aborigines also adopted words from maritime pidgin English, words like piccaninny and bilong (belong). They used familiar pidgin English variants like talcum and catchum. The most famous example is gammon, an eighteenth-century Cockney word meaning “a lie”.
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the Australian population were either convicts, ex-convicts or of convict descent. The convict argot was called “flash” language, and James Hardy Vaux published a collection of it in 1812, the New and Comprehensive Vocabulary of the Flash Language. Most of the words and phrases Vaux listed remained confined to convict circles and have not passed in the main stream of Australian English. There are a few exceptions, of which the best known is swag meaning “a bundle of personal belongings” in standard Australian. Swagman, billy, jumbuck, tucker-bag and coolibah tree are early Australianisms.
The roots of Australian English lie in the South and East of England, London, Scotland and Ireland. To take just a few examples, words like corker, dust-up, purler and tootsy all came to Australia from Ireland; billy comes from the Scottish bally, meaning “a milk pail”. A typical Australianism like fossick, meaning “to search unsystematically”, is a Cornish word. Cobber came from the Suffolk verb to cob, “to take a liking to someone”. Tucker is widely used for “food”. Clobber has Romany roots and is originally recorded in Kent as clubbered up, meaning “dressed up”. Скрыть
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