1. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
2. DEFINITION OF AN “ACCENT”
3. COCKNEY ENGLISH
4. AMERICAN ENGLISH
5. AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH
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2.Елисеева В.В. Лексикология английского языка (учебник). СПб: СПбГУ, 2003. – 44 p.
3.Crystal, David. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. 4th edition. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. 1997. - 426 p.
4.Fisiak J. An Outline History of English: 2 vols. Poznan, 1993.
5.Jespersen O. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. London, 1956.
6.Wyld H. C. A History of Modern Colloquial English. Oxford, 1936.
Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields and occupations, education ministries around the world mandate the teaching of English to at least a basic level (see English as an additional language).
Hiberno-English, the term applied to those varieties of English which were and are spoken, and sometimes written, in Ireland. These varieties are also sometimes referred to as Anglo-Irish or Irish-English. They are distinct from other varieties of English in that they have their own grammatical structures, vocabularies, sound systems, pronunciations, and patterns of intonation. The most significant varieties are the Northern and the Southern: roughly speaking, those to the north or the south of a line drawn from Bundoran in the west to Dundalk in the
Показать всеeast. The dialect of parts of the north and east of Ulster is also, and perhaps more appropriately, termed Ulster Scots. Modern Hiberno-English derives from the plantations of the 16th and 17th cents. Parts of the north and east of Ulster were settled by lowland Scots (giving rise to Ulster Scots) and the rest of Ulster, Leinster, and Munster were settled by regional dialect speakers of English, many of whom are likely to have come from the north of England. From its introduction Modern Hiberno-English was at a remove from the English of England, and remained conservative by comparison. However, it was in almost continuous contact with Irish, so that the influence of that language was considerable and pervasive. As Modern Hiberno-English progressively superseded Irish it often added (at least temporarily) further elements from that language, but it also lay upon a deep substratum of Irish, which is exposed in the English speech of natural bilinguals. Hiberno-English, like other regional varieties of English, is in general a spoken rather than a literary language. In the late 17th and 18th cents. a number of Irish-born dramatists achieved success in England with plays that made use of the stage Itishman and his speech to point to the follies and cruelties of English society.
Hiberno-English — known more commonly as Irish English — is spoken in Ireland and is the result of the interaction of the English and irish languages. English was mainly brought to Ireland during the Plantations of Ireland in the sixteenth century and established itself in Dublin and in the area of Leinster known as the Pale. It was later introduced into Ulster during the Plantations of Ulster through Belfast and the Lagan Valley in the seventeenth century. The linguistic influence of the Irish language is most evident in Gaeltachtai, areas where Irish (Gaelic) is still spoken, as well as in areas where, before the complete adoption of English, Irish continued to be spoken for longer than in other areas.1 Скрыть
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