Процесс конкурентного анализа
Конкуренция является наиболее опасным явлением на рынке, потому что конкуренция осмысленна, она может отрицательно реагировать на увеличение эффективности вашей стратегии и тактики, и на не-развивающихся рынках ваш рост или даже выживание должны осуществляться за счет конкуренции. Основные принципы конкуренции включают универсальные законы и отношения, которые необходимо понимать.
Certain elements are key to the analysis of any competitor. The components of a competitive analysis comprise, on one hand, what motivates the competitor and, on the other hand, what the competitor is currently doing and what he or she has the capability of doing in the future. They involve future goals, current strategy, assumptions and capability, all of which affect and result in a competitor’s response profile. From this profile we will know whether the competitor is satisfied with his or her current position in the marketplace or not, what moves in strategy the competitor is likely to take, where the competitor is vulnerable, and what actions or strategies on our part will provoke the greatest and most effective retaliation by the competitor.
There are two models of the collection of
Показать все data: collecting field data and collecting published data. In both cases data are collected, compiled, cataloged, digested, communicated to the strategist and finally used in a competitive analysis for strategy formulation. Three basic sources of data can be categorized as what competitors say about themselves in their advertisements, in press, due to government regulations, etc.; what others say about them and finally what individuals in your firm have observed while monitoring competitor activities. Other sources of competitive information may include local governmental offices, trade shows, universities, other local companies who have contracts with the company that is being analyzed, banks, etc. Additional sources are trade and professional associations, labor unions, stock-brokers, credit reporting and bond rating services, and most recently business data bases.
Since many companies may be involved in a number of different businesses, it is first necessary to segment our business into subsegments and to analyze these against similar segments in our competitors. In a similar fashion one could analyze a product line or a product instead of a business segment. In every case, the key competitors are selected, and drawing on the data that we have collected, important aspects of the competitor are documented, including its positioning of the business, product line, or product and its commitment to its success; the importance of the segment being analyzed to the company; its apparent current marketing strategy; its current financial strategy regarding resource allocation; and its current investment strategy. An essential step in competitive analysis is to access the competitor’s defensive capability in each case. Any strategy must be tied to allocation of resources and that resources allocation, be they machinery, land, or human, ultimately are described in monetary measurements. According to profitability matrix, developed by DuPont, operating asset turnover is plotted against operating margin. A series of different return-on-asset (ROA) percentages is also plotted.
A competitive arena map, based on the similarities between marketing and business strategy and military strategy, allows to investigate your position versus those of your competitors and, further, what the competition is trying to do over time. With a competitive arena map, you first define your business in terms of the need you intend to fill (an educational need, a transportation need, a food need, and so forth). Then you develop a map of the business arena that you serve. The competitive arena map encompasses the entire industry. After this map is completed, a segmentation matrix business battle map is constructed. Here we get down to the real nitty-gritty for specific products and services. We must select those products and services that we are going to analyze along with that of our competitors and determine how they can best be described. A convenient description depends on the situation. It may be by pricing, size, quality, complexity, function, or positioning. The third dimension, that may be added, is total market potential, which is calculated by multiplying the number of potential customers in the segment by the average price of the product sold. Each segment is indicated by a different code, color or otherwise. On these marketing battle maps even additional information can be shown.
So, the method selected for accomplishing the competitive analysis is derived from the various components that make up the structure, including future goals, current strategy, assumptions, capabilities. Combined, these result in a competitor’s response profile. The development of these elements is based on an extensive data collection and there is a number of data collection sources and sources of information. Using these data, we can accomplish a business segment analysis. Such types of analysis as DuPont matrix mapping a marketing battlefield, could be useful for understanding the situation in the marketplace and for predicting the alternative strategies, either ours or our competitors’.
Consumer buyer behavior
The study of buyer behavior is the understanding of how individuals or organizations behave in the purchase situation. It is really psychology applied to marketing, specifically to the buy decision. For example, success of karate, has resulted not because Professional Karate Association (PKA) has attempted to market karate to everyone, but rather because it has identified a specific demographic market segment that exhibits certain buyer behavior patterns. The factors that are important for fans of any football coach include: winning, convenient parking, right information to promote games, right personnel to sell the team, right time to play games, right place to play games; right amount of money to finance games; concessions; additional services for the games; right ticket price; band; booster club; cheerleaders; pom-pom girls. Buyer behavior in different segments of market also depends on the age and sex of customers.
It is important because if the buying behavior of a segment of the market is understood, it presents an opportunity for the marketing manager to fulfill the needs of potential customers in a unique way: not only physically but psychologically. The other side of the coin is if the marketing manager fails to fulfill the psychological needs of his or her potential customers, he or she will probably fail, even though the product or service satisfies physical needs.
This has been conceptualized as consumer behavior goals that marketing managers seek to achieve. They include increasing product adoption and repeat usage, satisfying consumers at a profit, protecting and educating consumers, satisfying consumers at an acceptable and nominal cost to them, and educating a social response.
Consumer behavior can also help us in implementation of strategy and technical goals. One study of psychographic segmentation, or grouping people by the way they behave, indicated that psychographic segmentation solutions developed for a market in one geographical location were generalizable to markets in other geographical locations. Thus consumer behavior concerns both strategy and tactics.
There are two basic categories of buyer behavior. The first is the consumer. But there is also an organizational category of buyer behavior that is equally important. It is necessary to understand not only the motivations and the background of the behavior of the individual consumer purchasing consumer products but also that of the organizational buyer whose motivations may be at least as complicated and difficult to comprehend. Neither may behave in what we could consider a “logical” fashion. Understanding both groups can be of great value because of the potential of so called “dual marketing”. That is, marketing to both consumers and organizational buyers. Benefits include serving a broader range of consumers, smoother production scheduling, capability of shifting resources, more profitable use of production capacity, and the opportunity to sell excess inventory.
Certain generalizations can be made based upon purchase influence studies regarding the consumer buying process. These include factors having to do with family decision making, internal factors that influence the consumer, and external factors that influence the consumer.
There are three household decision factors that we must consider: 1) Involvement of the husband versus the wife varies widely depending upon product category; 2) Influence within each product category varies by decision stages; 3) For each type of consumer decision, family member influence varies considerably among families. Internal factors that influence the consumer in the buying process include stages of information processing and consumer characteristics of behavior. A psychologist might divide human information processing into various stages. One such division of process includes successive steps of exposure, perception, comprehension, agreement, retention, retrieval, decision making, and action. Depending upon the stage, influence and behavior will vary. Consumer characteristics of behavior might include information such as age, sex, occupation, ethnic group, life style, and psychographics including way of thinking. External factors influencing the purchase decision include promotion, contact with others, direct experience with the product, and perceived price value relationships by the consumer.
It is possible to categorize consumer buying behavior and process as two distinct models, one simple, the other complex. The simple model is known as habitual brand choice. This purchase decision model works after the complex model has already resulted in a purchase decision and generally involves low-involvement products. The simple model simply means that one continues to purchase the brand or product or go to the dealer or store used in the past providing that the consumer was satisfied with it. Through habitual brand choice, you make decisions without much thought and without much wasted time, at the same time lowering your risk of satisfaction due to a favorable experience or at least an acceptable experience with the product in the past.
In the purchase of an unfamiliar product or one that is more expensive, a more complex decision-making process may occur. This includes: 1) recognition of the problem or felt need, 2) the search for alternative solutions to the desire, 3) the evaluation of the alternatives, 4) purchase decision, and 5) postpurchase feelings and evaluation. The last element is known as cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is the tension caused by uncertainty about the rightness of a purchase decision. This may lead the consumer to search for additional information to confirm that the decision was the right one in the first place. Thus, the buyer may continue to shop and look at competitive products even after the product has been purchased.
There is a number of theories, concerning major factors influencing consumer buyer behavior. The first is motivational theory, developed by Abraham H. Maslow. Maslow’s theory was that human being were motivated by a hierarchy of needs, beginning with physiological needs and progressing successively to safety needs, the need for love, esteem or self-respect needs, and self-actualization needs. Also at a high level but not quite fitting in with the previous needs in order were two other classes of needs: aesthetic needs and the need to know and understand. While there might be some overlap between each type of need, according to Maslow, as one need becomes satisfied, we seek to satisfy the next, and so on. So, only if your physiological needs are satisfied, your buyer behavior may appear and develop. Скрыть
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