Английский язык, как средство интерактивной коммуникации (на АНГЛ. языке)
1. The origin of English
2. English – the international language
3. English – the language of the Internet
4. How to study a foreign language efficiently
1.Резник И. В., Резник Р. В., Сорокина Т. С., Сорокина Т. А. A History of the English Language = История английского языка. серия: "Английский язык", Изд.: Флинта. – 2003.
2.A short history of the origins and development of the English language: www.englishclub.com
3.Leech G., Svartvik J.A. Communicative Grammar of English. — M. – 1983.
4.Maslova I.A. Cultural Linguistics. - Мoscow: "Academia", 2001.
5.Maslova V.A. Introduction Into Cultural Linguistics. - Moscow: Nasledie, 1997.
6.Teliya V.N. Russian Phraseology. Semantic, Pragmatic, and Linguocultural Aspects. - Мoscow: Languages of Russian Culture, 1996.
7.Tolstoy N.I. Ethnolinguistics in the Field of Humanities. // Russkaya Slovesnost. - Мoscow: Academia, 1997.
8.Visser F.Th. An Historical Syntax of the Englis
Показать всеh Language. - P.1. — Leiden. - 1984. - P.2. — Leiden. - 1984. - P.3. — Leiden. – 1978.
9.Yerasov B.S. Social Culturelogy. - Moscow: Aspect-Press, 1997.
10.Yule G. The Study of Language. An Introduction. — Cambridge. – 1985. Скрыть
2. English – the international language
Learning English is becoming more popular in Russia. The English language is now the first language of about 400 million people, the native language of 12 nations and the official or semiofficial language of 33 more nations. That means one in every seven people in the world speaks English. The English language has become the “new Latin” of the century, the world’s top tongue. One billion people speak English. That’s 20% of the world population. For the other 600 million it’s either a second language or a foreign language. There are more than 500,000 words in the Oxford English Dictionary. Compare that with the vocabulary of German (about 200,000) and French (about 100,000). At present no other language on the Earth is better suited to play the role
Показать всеof a world language.1
There are many reasons for its popularity. First, English is easier to learn than most other languages. Second, it borrows words and phrases from the very countries into which it expands. Eighty percent of all English vocabulary comes from other languages. For example, such words as pork, mutton, beef, etc. were borrowed from French; book, renew, water etc. were borrowed from German; library, renovate, aquatic, etc. were borrowed from Latin; bibliography, hydraulic, telephone, television, etc. were borrowed from Greek. Many words have entered English as a result of trade and colonial expansion: alcohol and algebra come from Arabic; divan and khaki from Persian; chocolate and tomato from native American languages; tea and tycoon from Chinese.
English is so widespread nowadays because it has become the standard language for all kinds of international communication: 80% of all information in the world’s computers is in English; nearly 50% of all the companies in Europe communicate with one another in English; 75% of all international letters and telexes are in English. English is also the international language of businesspeople, pilots, diplomats and politicians, sportsmen and scientists, doctors and students, musicians and singers.
Nowadays in Russia the English language has become the most popular among foreign languages. There are many very good reasons to learn this language. Our country is a part of Europe and the world. Very little clear and detailed communication can occur among people who don’t have a common language. Learning English helps in talking to people, in reading and writing, in understanding TV and films from other countries, and opens up much a wider range of sources of information. Then when you travel in different countries you can manage a lot better if you understand and people understand you. When you speak English to people, they’re often a lot more friendly and helpful. English is the language of communication between different peoples and countries. If you are interested in science, business, medicine, literature and music and you want to be up to date with progress in those fields, you can always read the latest report in English and know the latest information about the question you are interested in.
Learning English broadens your mind and way of thinking. So English is a global language nowadays. Problems of the 21st century, such as the problems of war and peace, ecology, demographics, democracy and many others can not be solved if people do not speak the same language. I think that English is going to become even more important as a global language, dominating world trade, computers and media, while other languages will become localized or just die out.
I think it’s very valuable and helpful in learning English if you start it from an early age. Maybe people can learn the best up to about the age of 20, as they have a lot of time for it, which later isn’t possible. Learning English is not like learning maths or science, because it involves a different way of thinking. You have to learn to think in English. This is like music, maybe. And you have to learn the grammar and vocabulary, too, if you want to know the language well. I have been studying English since the 1st form and I hope I know English more or less now. It is one of my favourite subjects at school. Honestly, I can’t think about my future life without English. I haven’t chosen my future profession yet, but I’m up to date. I’m fond of travelling, computing, reading, art and music, and I’m sure I can’t do without English when I’m a grown-up. English will help me everywhere in my life.
English is increasingly becoming the language of international communication, education, trade and business. More than 350 million people all over the world speak English. Still more are learning it, grown ups as well as small children.1
The English language is one of many that belong to the Indo-European family. It's a member of a language family that includes ancient languages like Ancient Greek and Latin, Urdu and Persian. It isn't a very old language as it began do develop in England in about A.D. 450, when Anglo-Saxon invaders came from Germany. Old English was more like modern German and Dutch than like modern English as it was affected by the languages of the Vikings and the Normans. Many words came into English from French or Latin and nevertheless, English is one of the most popular and spoken languages in the whole world. Not some other language, but English has become a world language.
Certainly, the fact has its explanations. First of all, England developed like a country and soon became one of the strongest and most powerful countries. To that time it had already many colonies all over the world - in Australia, Canada, U.S.A., even Africa. Many English people migrated there. English became an official language in many countries, which later got independence. But English remains an official language in most of them even until now.
English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It is spoken as a native language by around 377 million and as a second language by around 375 million speakers in the world. Speakers of English as a second language will soon outnumber those who speak it as a first language.
Around 750 million people are believed to speak English as a foreign language. English has an official or a special status in 75 countries with a total population of over 2 billion.
The domination of the English language globally is undeniable. English is the language of diplomacy and international communications, business, tourism, education, science, computer technology, media and Internet. Because English was used to develop communication, technology, programming, software, etc, it dominates the web. 70% of all information stored electronically is in English.
British colonialism in the 19th century and American capitalism and technological progress in the 20th century were undoubtedly the main causes for the spread of English throughout the world. 1
The English language came to British Isles from northern Europe in the fifth century. From the fifteenth century, the British began to sail all over the world and became explorers, colonists and imperialists. They took the English language to North America, Canada and the Caribbean, to South Africa, to Australia and New Zealand, to South Asia (especially India), to the British colonies in Africa, to South East Asia and the South Pacific.
The USA has played a leading role in most parts of the world for the last hundred years. At the end of the 19th century and first quarter of the 20th, it welcomed millions of European immigrants who had fled their countries ravaged by war, poverty or famine. This labor force strengthened American economy. The Hollywood film industry also attracted many foreign artists in quest of fame and fortune and the number of American films produced every year soon flooded the market. Before the Treaty of Versailles (1919), which ended the First World War between Germany and the Allies, diplomacy was conducted in French. However, President Woodrow Wilson succeeded in having the treaty in English as well. Since then, English started being used in diplomacy and gradually in economic relations and the media.
The future of English as a global language will depend very largely on the political, economical, demographic and cultural trends in the world. The beginning of the 21st century is a time of global transition. According to some experts, faster economic globalization is going hand in hand with the growing use of English. More and more people are being encouraged to use English rather than their own language. On the other hand, the period of most rapid change can be expected to be an uncomfortable and at times traumatic experience for many people around the world. Hence, the opposite view, that the next 20 years or so will be a critical time for the English language and for those who depend upon it. The patterns of usage and public attitudes to English which develop during this period will have long-term effects for its future in the world.
So for many centuries English was spoken in very different parts of the world. Certainly, it quickly became a language of international trade. In some countries English remained as the second language: a way in which people who have different languages communicate with each other.
In many countries English became the most popular language among students.
Most learners of English as a Foreign Language study Standard British of Standard American English. There exist also the Australian English. The main differences between them are at the level of words and expressions, though there are also some structural differences and those in pronunciation.
In general American English has a tendency to simplify its grammar and phraseology, which is not typical to the British English.
3. English – the language of the Internet
A foreign language is an integral part of professional business activities in the modern world. The preferred communication method is rapidly becoming voice communications. Everyone wants to speak English to prosper in life. English is the No.1 business language in the World. If you could speak English you could communicate with over half of the world. Currently our market consists of around 600 million Internet users that go online daily and cannot speak English.1
English is the universal language on the Internet as well despite of the act that it has no official status. The reason for the position of English is economical and political importance of English-speaking countries.
In general, the universal language on the Internet is English because their common origin is the national language spoken in England by the English. That national language has spread over the world, and several variants such as American English, Australian English, etc exist. A great number of people whose native language is none of the variants know English as a foreign language. They typically use a more or less simplified variant, e.g. excluding most of the idioms of British, American, Australian etc. English. Of course, they make mistakes, and sometimes the “English” used by people as a foreign language on the Internet is almost incomprehensible to anyone else. In addition, people who use English as their native language do not know how to spell difficult words, since they basically know English as a spoken language.
Thus, roughly speaking, the in universal language of the Internet we can meet coarse and misspelled “English”.
There are exceptions, most importantly national newsgroups in such countries where English is not the native language of the majority. Even in such groups English is used, for instance when people from other countries wish to participate in an international action. A few international groups have a theme like discussing a particular language or culture so that it is natural to assume that the participants have a common language other than English. Moreover, a group which is partly international in the sense of not being purely national might use a language other than English, for instance if the group is intended for people in German-speaking countries.
Generally speaking, when a language has got the position of a universal language, the position tends to be affirmed and extended by itself. Since almost everyone knows and uses English, people are eager to learn English and use it, and learn it better.
Even if you expect the majority of your readers to understand your native language, you may be tempted to use English when writing e.g. about research work. Usually researchers all over the world know English and use it a lot, and often the relevant terminology is more stable and well-known in English than in your own language. Thus, to maximize the number of interested people that can understand your text, you often select English even if the great majority of your readers have the same native language as you. Alternatively, you might write your texts both in your native language and in English, but this doubles the work needed for writing your document and possibly maintaining it.
The maintenance problem is especially important for documents on the World Wide Web - the information system where one crucial feature is the ability to keep things really up to date. Consequently, the use of English in essentially national contexts tends to grow.
In the news system, the position of English in most international groups is regarded as so obvious that people who post non-English articles to such groups - by accident or by ignorance - typically get flamed quickly. This is the sort of control that newsgroup communities exercise in other matters than language, too. It is often regarded as an example of the “democratic” nature of the news system. However, things are changing fast. The flame control - i.e. control by flaming - has worked to a great extent because people have had relatively compatible status, background, and values of life.
The time has come - childhood's end for the Internet - when we will see more and more people and organizations who pay little attention to flames and netiquette. The increasing amount of spamming is just one indication of this. But these general remarks hardly apply to the status of English.
By the way, when people post articles to international groups in their own languages, the reason is typically novice users ignorance of basic facts about the news system. People start posting articles before they have read what is generally written to the group. One thing that causes this happen relatively often that there is no easily accessible and useable list of groups together with their content descriptions, and typically content descriptions do not explicitly state what language should be used in the group.
The importance of the Internet grows rapidly in all fields of human life, including not only research and education but also marketing and trade as well as entertainment and hobbies. This implies that it becomes more and more important to know how to use Internet services and, as a part of this, to read and write English.
Of course, the majority of mankind cannot use the Internet nowadays or in the near future, since they live in countries which lack the necessary economical and technological infrastructure. But the Internet causes polarization in developed countries, too: people are divided into Internet users and Internet illiterates, and as the use of the Internet grows and often replaces traditional methods of communication, the illiterates may find themselves in an awkward position.
In general, it is easy to learn to use Internet services. The worst problems of Internet illiteracy are, in addition to lack of economical resources of course, wrong attitudes. Older people are usually not accustomed to live in a world of continuous and rapid change, and they may not realize the importance of the Internet or the easiness of learning to use it.
But although Internet services themselves are, generally speaking, easy to learn and use, you will find yourself isolated on the Internet if you are not familiar with English. This means that knowledge or lack of knowledge of English is one of the most severe factors that cause polarization. Learning to use a new Internet service or user interface May take a few hours, a few days, or even weeks, but it takes years to learn a language so that you can use it in a fluent and self-confident manner.
Of course, when you know some English, you can learn more just by using it on the Internet, but at least currently the general tendency among Internet users is to discourage people in their problems with the English language. Incorrect English Causes A few Flames Much More Probably Than Encouragement And Friendly Advice.
In different countries and cultures, English has different positions. There are countries where English is the native language of the majority, there are countries where English is a widely known second language, and there are countries where English has no special position.
These differences add to the above-mentioned polarization. Specifically, it is difficult for people in previous colonies of other countries than Great Britain (e.g. France, Spain, the Netherlands) to adapt to the necessity of learning English. Locally, it May be necessary to learn the language of the previous colonial power since it is often an Official language and the common language of educated people; globally, English is necessary for living on the Internet. and the more languages you have to learn well, the less time and energy you will have for learning other things.
There is no conceivable way in which any authority could define an Official language for the Internet. The Internet As a whole Is Not Controlled By Anyone Or Anything, and this could only change if, by miracle, all countries made an agreement on it or if the entire world were taken to the control of one government. Скрыть
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