1.Ask CBS News: Does Media Affect Economy? // http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/07/30/eveningnews/main6729976.shtml
CBS Corporation operated in four business segments: television (66% of 2006 revenues), radio (14%), outdoor advertising (nearly 15%), and publishing (nearly 6% through Simon & Schuster). In 2006, CBSmade $1.7billion on revenues of $14.3billion. CBS's television segment consisted of the television network with entertainment, news, and sports programming, 40 broadcast television stations and the CW broadcast network joint venture with Warner Brothers. The segment also included CBSParamount Network Television and CBSTelevision Distribution (which produced, syndicated, and distributed programming content), Showtime Networks cable channel s, CSTV (college sports programming), and CBS Interactive. CBS's primary competitors in the television segment included the other network broadcasters as well
Показать все as television content providers such as Disney, Sony, Warner Brothers, and Fox. During the 2006-2007 fall and early winter season, CBS was the number one network in terms of prime time overall viewership.
As we can see, the framework of macro-environmental factors is complex. So the CBS Company has a lot of opportunities to the future development.
In the United States, movie production is known to be dominated by major studios since the early 20th Century; before that, there was a period in which Edison's Trust monopolized the industry. The music and television industries recently witnessed cases of media consolidation, with Sony Music Entertainment’s parent company merging their music division with Bertelsmann AG's BMG to form Sony BMG and TimeWarner’s The WB and CBS Corp.’s UPN merging to form The CW. In the case of Sony BMG, there existed a "Big Five" (now "Big Four") of major record companies, while The CW’s creation was an attempt to consolidate ratings and stand up to the "Big Four" of American network (terrestrial) television.
There may also be some large-scale owners in an industry that are not the causes of monopoly or oligopoly. Clear Channel Communications, especially since the Telecommunications Act of 1996, acquired many radio stations across the United States, and came to own more than 1,200 stations. However, the radio broadcasting industry in the United States and elsewhere can be regarded as oligopolistic regardless of the existence of such a player. Because radio stations are local in reach, each licensed a specific part of airwave by the FCC in a specific local area, any local market is served by a limited number of stations. In most countries, this system of licensing makes many markets local oligopolies. The similar market structure exists for television broadcasting, cable systems and newspaper industries, all of which are characterized by the existence of large-scale owners. Concentration of ownership is often found in these industries.
In the United States, data on ownership and market share of media companies is not held in the public domain. Academics, for example at MIT Media Lab and NYU, have struggled to find data that show reliably the concentration of media ownership.
There are many markets that tip toward a single dominant firm. In recent history, we have seen this phenomenon through eBay’s dominance of the U.S. online auction industry and Google's dominance of the online search industry. Although it is difficult to accurately predict how a market will evolve, there are certain observable characteristics that most winner-take-all markets have. Three factors can be identified as determinants of a winner-take-all market structure: network effects, platform differentiation, and multi-horning costs. These factors must be analyzed collectively because none of the factors independently are strong enough to lead to a single dominant firm.
Network Effects Previous research has concentrated on network effects as the primary determinant in winner-take-all markets. The network effect is the idea that the utility a customer gains from a certain product increases with the number of other users of the same good. Two different kind of network effects exist: direct network effects and indirect network effects. Скрыть
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